Monthly Archives: November 2012

Boddington gold mine in Western Australian mining video

This is animation video the Boddington gold mine is located in Western Australian mining some 14 km northwest of the town is located about 130km south-east of PerthThe town’s. Western Australia occupies the whole western part of the continent. Its economy is largely driven by extraction and processing of a diverse range of mineral and petroleum commodities. The state contributes an estimated 58 percent of Australia’s Mineral and Energy Exports.
 Newmont Boddington Gold mine, commenced plant start-up in July 2009. Over 14,000 employees and contractors worked more than 14 million man hours to start up the project the gold mine in the Boddington At year end 2010 the mine had reserves of 20 million ounces of gold and 2.4 billion pounds of copper. At full production Boddington would be Australia’s largest gold producer.

Geology And Reserves Australian Mining In  Boddington Gold Mine
Boddington is a gold in greenstone belt hosted structural zone deposit. It is located within the Saddleback Greenstone Belt consisting of Archaean volcanic and shallow level intrusive rocks, surrounded by granitic and gneissic rocks. The main zone of gold mineralization occurs reasonably continuously over a strike length of over five kilometres and a width of about one kilometre. The oxide gold mineralisation forms a semi-continuous blanket within the upper iron-rich laterite, with more erratic gold distribution in the lower zones. The basement rocks below the oxide zone host gold mineralisation with a variety of geological styles, predominantly in andesitic volcanics and diorite dykes.

Mining And Production At Boddington Gold Mine
The mining operation at Boddington Gold Mine consists of two large open pits. 100mtpa average ex-pit mining rate. 1:1 ore / waste stripping ratio. As of May 2012, Newmont was seeeking to expnd the mine life to 2052 by combining the north and south Wandoo open pits. The waste rock facility is to be expanded as well to 2 billion metric tons. Mining production at Boddington gold mine commenced in 2009 under the management of the Boddington Gold Mine Management Company, a 100% Newmont-owned company. Average attributable gold production in the first five years will be 1,000,000oz a year, while on an average life-of-mine basis, attributable production is estimated to be between 250,000oz and 270,000oz a year. Copper production, which is being sold as concentrate, is expected to be around 30,000t a year. In 2009, approximately 103,300oz of gold and 9.0 million pounds of copper were sold from Boddington. The mine produced 741,000oz of gold and
69 million pounds (mlbs) of copper in 2011.

Processing At Boddington Gold Mine
Very tough hard rock is subjected to three stage crushing plus single stage grinding: coarse crushing, fine crushing and screening at process plant, and milling. The ground ore is conveyed to the treatment plant via a conveyor. At the treatment plant, the ore is crushed further and ground finely to slurry with Ball Mill . The ore is initially processed by flotation, which produces copper / gold concentrate with about 18% copper. Fine liberated gold is recovered by processing flotation concentrates through a gravity circuit before it is de-watered and stored. It is then ship-loaded for delivery to the smelters. The residual gold content found in the flotation tailings is recovered through carbon-in-leach circuit. The processing equipment used at the mine includes two 60X113 primary crushers, five MP 1000 secondary crushers, four high pressure grinding rolls and four ball mills. The wastewater treatment plant at the mine currently provides up to 0.5 mega litres each day.

Book Principles of Mineral Processing

Reference Book Principles of Mineral Processing [Hardcover] Editor by Maurice C. Fuerstenau and Kenneth N. Han  examines all aspects of mineral processing from the handling of raw materials to separation strategies to the remediation of waste products. Shows how developments in engrg., chemistry, computer science, and environmental science contribute to the ultimate goal of producing minerals and metals economically from ores.
Book Principles of Mineral Processing an indispensable textbook for students of mineral processing and hydrometallurgy, and a practical reference for seasoned industry professionals interested in improving operational efficiencies. It presents the principles that govern various unit operations in mineral processing along with examples that illustrate how these principles apply to real-world situations. Topics are arranged in the order of the typical processing sequence, including communition, separation, flotation, hydrometallurgy, and waste handling.
Destined to become an industry standard, this comprehensive reference examines all aspects of minerals processing, from the handling of raw materials to separation strategies to the remediation of waste products. Book Principles of Mineral Processing incorporates state-of-the-art developments in the fields of engineering, chemistry, computer science, and environmental science and explains how these disciplines contribute to the ultimate goal of producing minerals and metals economically from ores. With contributions from more than 20 recognized authorities, this thorough reference presents the most current thinking on the science and technology of mineral processing.
A very comprehensive reference book on the development and wizardry of separating and collecting “Things dug out of the Earth”(Descartes). It deals with older and modern methods, the evolution of equipment and plant and also typical individual integrated processes.
The clear explanations are most useful for those interested in this somewhat obscure subject but it is an invaluable reference book for the desk of those involved in ore separation plant operation or design. 
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About the Author  Book Principles of Mineral Processing : 

  •  Maurice C Fuerstenau has contributed to Principles of Mineral Processing as an editor. Prof, Univ of Nevada-Reno, Mackay School of Mines. Recognized expert in his field. 
  • Kenneth N Han has contributed to Principles of Mineral Processing as an editor. Prof., South Kalota Schl of Mines & Tech, Metallurgical Engrg Dept. Recognized expert in his field. 

Advances in Gold Ore Processing, (Developments in Mineral Processing)

Book Description Advances in Gold Ore Processing, Volume 15 (Developments in Mineral Processing) [Hardcover]

Release Date: December 13, 2005 | ISBN-10: 0444517308 | ISBN-13: 978-0444517302 | Edition: 1
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      The gold processing industry is experiencing change. As free-milling and oxide ores become depleted, more complex polymetallic and refractory ores are being processed, coupled with increasing pressure for stricter environmental compliance. Recent years have also seen a steady reduction in mineral processing and metallurgy graduates and a gradual loss of older operating experience. A contribution to documenting current and future best practice in gold ore processing seems timely. 
The focus of this volume is on advances in current gold plant operation, from conception to closure; chapters also cover innovations at the bench and pilot-scale level that would be expected to find commercial application at some stage. Sufficient coverage is also given to the chemistry and engineering aspects. The general principle behind the structure of the volume is that of flowsheeting based on unit operations and applied to a mineralogical classification of gold ore types. From concept to closure, this book covers all unit operations, mineralogies and processes that are relevant to dealing with today’s complex orebodies.

Practical experience is vital to the successful development, operation and closure of any operation. The 42 chapters have been contributed by a total of 66 authors and co-authors who are experts from countries spanning the globe, and representing exhaustive practical knowledge covering many disciplines relevant to gold processing.

  • Current best practice as elucidated by a select panel of experts in the field
  • Innovations at the bench and pilot-scale level that would be expected to find commercial application at some stage
  • Mineralogical-based approach to flowsheeting

“The book should be of great use to mineral processing engineers, metallurgists, process mineralogists, mining engineers, environmental engineers, consultants, plant managers, and students. It is certain that it will be the source book for those working in the field for decades to come. I consider this is the Book of the Year!”

Book Mineral Processing Technology Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery

    Book Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology, Seventh Edition: An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery . This comprehensive book focuses on beneficiation methods. These include crushing, grinding, comminution, froth flotation, dense medium separation, etc. Parts of this book are quantitative, and suggested Excel spreadsheet formats are provided.
    There is a relatively sophisticated introduction to the economics of metal recovery. For instance, when tin occurs within easily-accessible alluvial deposits, as little as 0.01% tin (that’s a mere 100 ppm) is commercially exploitable. In contrast, when tin occurs in veins that require deep mining to reach it, a minimum level of 1.5% may be necessary to make it worth getting (p. 4).
Considering their increasing importance in recent years, there is little attention devoted to the rare earth minerals. However, the table provided on the polarity of minerals (p. 270) includes some commonly REE-bearing ones (e. g. apatite, monazite). Likewise, the table provided on the electrical behavior of minerals (p. 367) includes the same two minerals.
Virtually all mining operations involve the production of mine waste. Apropos to this, there is a helpful chapter on methods of dealing with mine tailings.

Book Description Mineral Processing Technology Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery

Publication Date: October 27, 2006 | ISBN-10: 0750644508 | ISBN-13: 978-0750644501 | Edition: 7
Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology provides practising engineers and students of mineral processing, metallurgy and mining with a review of all of the common ore-processing techniques utilized in modern processing installations.

Now in its Seventh Edition, this renowned book is a standard reference for the mineral processing industry. Chapters deal with each of the major processing techniques, and coverage includes the latest technical developments in the processing of increasingly complex refractory ores, new equipment and process routes. This new edition has been prepared by the prestigious J K Minerals Research Centre of Australia, which contributes its world-class expertise and ensures that this will continue to be the book of choice for professionals and students in this field.

This latest edition highlights the developments and the challenges facing the mineral processor, particularly with regard to the environmental problems posed in improving the efficiency of the existing processes and also in dealing with the waste created. The work is fully indexed and referenced.

  • The classic mineral processing text, revised and updated by a prestigious new team
  • Provides a clear exposition of the principles and practice of mineral processing, with examples taken from practice
  • Covers the latest technological developments and highlights the challenges facing the mineral processor
  • New sections on environmental problems, improving the efficiency of existing processes and dealing with waste. 
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The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by John Marsden

     In the gold mining mineral processing separation process valuable minerals from impurities is very important to do, which is mechanically to produce products that are rich in valuable minerals. Currently a lot of various processing techniques used to obtain the maximum results in the gold mining industry is growing very rapidly at this time. I saw some references a book about The Chemistry of Gold Extraction that maybe you can use in the learning process in the gold mining industry

    This technical reference provides the broad base of knowledge necessary for those working in gold extraction and gold processing industries. The Chemistry of Gold Extraction is an extensively revised and comprehensively updated edition of the well-known reference first published in 1992. It provides the broad base of knowledge that is now required by all those working in the gold extraction and gold processing industries. The book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by  John Marsden bridges the gap between research and industry by emphasizing the practical applications of chemical principles and techniques.

The technical reference book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by John Marsden includes in-depth discussions on:
  • Historical Developments
  • Ore Deposits and Process Mineralogy
  • Process Selection
  • Principles of Gold Hydrometallurgy
  • Oxidative Pretreatment
  • Leaching
  • Solution Purification and Concentration
  • Recovery
  • Surface Chemical Methods
  • Refining
  • Effluent Treatment
  • Industrial Applications
      Book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by John Marsden is an amazingly detailed exposition of gold concentration and extraction. Many books are long on the theory and very thin on the engineering issues involved. Other books are enhanced process diagrams and cookbooks and give little theory. This book is a treasure with a perfect blend of theory and the engineering process to utilize that theory. Therefore, a comprehensive view of the entire processing from geology to gold bar is a real treat. One other item – trying to get this information on a paper by paper basis would be financially ruinous as well as maddening.
      Book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction is a valuable asset for all professionals involved in the precious metals industries. It will be of particular interest and use to engineers and scientists (including extraction metallurgists, mineral/metallurgical engineers, electrochemists, chemical engineers, mineral technologists, mining engineers, and material scientists), plant managers and operators, academics, educators, and students working in gold extraction in either production, research, or consulting capacities.

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10 world gold mining industries biggest 2012

          Based on data from the U.S. Geological Society, estimated gold ore reserves that have not been mined and available on the planet about 51,000 tons, making gold business is getting bigger. As quoted from the latest data issued by Thompson Reuters and the Metals Economics Group reported by CNBC, Monday (19/03/2012), here are 10 of the world’s biggest gold mine owned by public companies. Mines is considered as the greatest because it comes from one mine alone, not the production of several mines which are then combined by a single company.
 
It’s her 10 largest gold mine in the world, among others :
1. Grasberg Mine
     Grasberg is a world-class mining complex in Indonesia, where Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold is engaged in exploration and development, mining and milling of ore containing copper, gold and silver. The Grasberg mine is located at Tembagapura in Irian Jaya, which is Indonesia’s easternmost province, on the western half of the island of New Guinea. The mine is about 60 miles north of Timika, a town of about 100,000 people. There are about two million people living in this region. The Lorentz National Park, which has several glaciers on its peaks, lies to the east of the mine. The mine is 96 km north of the southwest coast of Indonesia at elevations of 2,500 to 4,200 m above sea level. 
  •  Location: Papua, Indonesia
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.444.000 0z
  • The area: 527,400 acres
  • Miners: Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine and underground


 2. Cortez Mine 

      The Cortez gold mine is located 100 kilometres southwest of Elko, Nevada in Lander County. The Cortez Pipeline property is 11 kilometres northwest and the Cortez Pediment property (which includes the Cortez Hills deposit) is 4 kilometres southeast of the original Cortez milling complex. The Cortez property covers approximately 2,800 square kilometres on one of the world’s most highly prospective mineral trends. The Cortez gold mine is located 100 kilometres southwest of Elko, Nevada, USA. It is a complex of several open pit mines, an underground mine, concentrator and several heap leach pads. The Pipeline and South Pipeline deposits are mined by conventional open-pit methods.
  • Location: Elko, Nevada.
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.421.000 oz
  • Broad Area: 1081 square meters
  • Miners: Barrick Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine
3. Yanacocha Gold Mine
       The mine is located high in the Andes Mountains, 28 miles north of Cajamarca and 375 miles north of Lima. The property encompasses 607 square miles (1,572 square kilometers). Yanacocha is the largest gold producer in South America. Yanacocha is a complex of five open pit mines, four leach pads, two gold recovery plants and a crushing and agglomeration facility. The Yanacocha mine operation is spread across 600 square miles at altitudes as high as 14,000 feet. Actual operations cover approximately 60 square miles. The highest operational area is at 13,812 feet. The Yanacocha gold deposits are high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, with varying amounts of silver, that occur within a mid to late Miocene flow dome field with associated volcaniclastic rocks and minor lacustrine sediments. The gold is associated with silver bearing enargite and arsenian pyrite. Copper mineralization occurs at depth below the gold deposits.
  • Location: Cajamarca, Peru
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.293.000 oz
  • The area: 96 square feet
  • Miners: Mining Newmont, Buenaventura, World Bank
  • Type of mine: open
4. Goldstrike mine
       The Goldstrike Complex is located on the Carlin Trend, united mining industries the most prolific in the Western Hemisphere, about 60 kilometres northwest of Elko, Nevada, USA. The Goldstrike operations consist of the Betze-Post open pit mine and the Meikle and Rodeo underground mines which are located just north of the Betze-Post pit, along the same mineralized trend. The 9,921-acre (4,000 ha) Goldstrike property is split into two main listings, the Betze-Post Mine and the Meikle Mine (separately listed). The Betze-Post mine includes the Screamer zone, North Betze, and West Betze areas. The separately listed Meikle mine includes the Rodeo and Griffin deposits.
  • Location: Eureka and Elko Counties, Nevada.
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.088.000 oz
  • Miners: Barrick Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine and underground
5. Veladero Gold mine
         The Veladero mine is located in the San Juan Province of Argentina, immediately to the south of the Pascua-Lama property in the highly prospective Frontera District. The property is located at elevations of 4,000 and 4,850 metres above sea level, approximately 374 kilometres northwest of the city of San Juan.Veladero is a conventional open-pit operation where ore is crushed by a two-stage crushing process and transported via overland conveyor and trucks to the leach pad area. Run-of-mine ore is trucked directly to the valley-fill leach pad.
  •  Veladero Gold Mine 
  • Location: San Juan, Argentina 
  • Gold production in 2011: 957,000 oz
  • Miners: Barrick Gold 
  • Type of mine: open mine

 6. Vall River Gold mine
        Anglo Gold Ashanti’s Great Noligwa underground gold mine is situated close to the town of Orkney, on the free state side of the Vaal River in South Africa. It adjoins Kopanang and Moab Khotsong as part of AngloGold’s extensive Vaal River operations, which comprise four gold plants, one uranium plant and a sulphuric acid plant. 
Geology and reserves
The reefs mined at Great Noligwa are the Vaal Reef and the Crystalkop Reef, with the Vaal Reef accounting for over 90% of the gold produced in the mine. The Vaal Reef consists of 85% of the ore reserve tonnage with mining grades between 10g/t and 20g/t. 
Mining and processing
“The reefs mined at Great Noligwa are the Vaal Reef and the Crystalkop Reef, with the Vaal Reef accounting for over 90% of the gold produced in the mine.” The complexity of the ore at Great Noligwa has necessitated a scattered mining strategy comprising a twin-shaft system serving eight main levels at an average depth of 2,400m.

  •  Location: Klerksdorp, South Africa
  • Gold production in 2011: 831,000 oz
  • The area: 14,602 acres
  • Miners: AngloGold Ashanti
  • Type of mine: underground mining

7. West Wits Mining

Savuka is situated on the West Wits line in the province of Gauteng, approximately 70km southwest of Johannesburg. Savuka is close to the town of Carletonville. The Carbon Leader Reef (CLR) is mined at depths varying between 3,137m and 3,457m below surface and the Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR) at a depth of 1,808m below surface.
  •  Location: Carletonville, South Africa 
  • Gold production in 2011: 792,000 oz
  • The area: 4188 acres 
  • Miners: Anglo Gold Ashanti 
  • Type of mine: underground mining
8. Lagunas Norte gold mine
             This is the concession for the Lagunas Norte gold mine which is located on the Alto Chicama property in north-central Peru at an elevation of 4,000 to 4,260 metres above sea level, and is owned by Barrick Gold Corporation. Lagunas Norte was one of the larger greenfield discoveries in its time capable of producing more than one million ounces in a year, and is one of Barrick’s lowest cost operations. The mine itself is an open-pit, crush, valley-fill heap leach operation.
  • Location: Santiago de Chuco, Peru
  • Gold production in 2011: 770,000 oz
  • Miners: Barrick Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine

9. Kalgoorlie Super Pit 

          The Fimiston Open Pit, colloquially known as the Super Pit, is Australia’s largest open cut gold mine. Mining industries in australia this is located off the Goldfields Highway on the south-east edge of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The pit is oblong in shape and is approximately 3.5 kilometres long, 1.5 kilometres wide and 360 metres deep. At these dimensions, it is large enough to be seen from space.
  •  Location: Kalgoorlie, Australia 
  • Gold production in 2011: 750,000 oz  
  • Miners: Barrick Gold; Newmont Mining 
  • Type of mine: open mine

 

 10. The Boddington Gold Mine 
  • Location: is a gold and copper mine located 17 km northwest of Boddington, Western      Australia.  A bedrock resource of almost 20 million ounces was identified
  • Gold production in 2011: 741,000 oz 
  • Miners: Newmont Mining
  • Type of mine: open mine 


Extracting Gold By Carbon In Pulp with Activated Carbon

       Carbon In Pulp is the absorption of compounds into carbon Dicyano Aurrat. In the process extracting gold by carbon in pulp with activated carbon occurs after the leaching of mineral ore slurry in a tank. And during the washing, the carbon-in-leach and adsorption occur simultaneously. In both processes mineral ore leaching slurry will be transferred from one tank into the recovery tank of carbon using a pumping machine. This is generally accomplished by passing the slurry through a series of adsorption vessels coupled with the periodic transfer of carbon, usually associated with pulp, and in the opposite direction. Column tanks are often used consists of a large carbon column (diameter 5 to 8 feet) and 15 to 20 feet in height, and filled with activated carbon. Minimum load of carbon rule of thumb is one pound of activated carbon per 0.1 ounces of gold are present in solution, and usually it’s a few pounds per 1 / 10 ounce
         Two main methods Carbon In Pulp (CIP) and Carbon Columns may consist of the most widely used technique for extracting gold today. Both methods use a large tank in the column parallel step where gold is dissolved in the slurry (pulp) through a chemical process and combine agitation, oxygen and cyanide. In CIP, the carbon is mixed with a solution of cyanide leach and ore agitated in the Tank leaching, and the adsorption process will separate the gold. This will bring together between carbon and gold cyanide solution which is attached to the carbon. Granular carbon is often hard to use in a variety of sizes between 10-16 mesh. Carbon is then filtered by using the screening, on-screen screening of carbon will settle and the liquid is finely ground ore (-100 mesh) will be screened out through the screen into the tank.CIP treatment system can be described simply as a picture diagram below:
Diagram of the processing of gold with carbon in pulp

 Function Of Activated Carbon For Gold Mining

    Activated carbon is widely used in the absorption of gold cyanide complexes in gold processing. This process can be applied to the clear solution through a fluidized bed column or participate in the process of leaching on the tank and the separation of carbon. Activated carbon in the cyanide process gold or commonly referred to as activated charcoal is charcoal made ​​from coconut shell charcoal, charcoal or wood or coal. The most widely used is granular activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal. With specific processing of the activation process such as treatment with high pressure and temperature, can be obtained activated carbon has a surface in the area. Glanural activated carbon derived from coconut shells are produced by pirolis with temperature 600-900 degrees Celsius by using an inert gas (argon or nitrogen) or by oxidation or combustion.

      Adsorption of gold complexes (especially ion disianoaurat) on activated carbon is the basis of modern techniques for gold extraction process. This process is very effective and has become a major factor in improving the productivity of the gold mining industry over the last 25 years (S., Mansooreh, Tahereh Kaghazchi, 2007). Carbon is very actively used in the process of recovery of dissolved gold, either by introducing direct to the CIL (carbon-in-leach) or CIP (carbon-in-pulp) tanks after leaching. Activated carbon adsorbs dissolved gold from gold leach pulp complex to be absorbed through the pores of the carbon.The most cost-effective process is to create adsorption of the dissolved gold onto activated carbon, resulting in an Easier solid-solid separation based on size To Achieve this ore particles must typically be Smaller than 100 μm while the carbon particles must be larger than 500 μm. Adsorption is achieved by Contacting the activated carbon with the agitated pulp. This can be done while the gold is still being leached with the CIL-process, or following leaching with the CIP-process. The CIL-process offers the advantage of Countering the adsorption of gold on carbonaceous or shale ore particles, but is more expensive due to less efficient adsorption, Increased gold inventory and Increased fouling and abrasion of the carbon. 
Activated carbon in contact with a pulp containing gold can typically recover more than 99.5% of the gold in the solution in 8 to 24 hours, Depending on the reactivity of the carbon, the amount of carbon used and the mixer’s efficiency. The loaded carbon is then separated from the pulp by water or screens That are swept hydrodynamically, thus Preventing blinding by the near sized carbon particles. The pulp residue is then either thickened to separate the cyanide containing solution for recovery / destruction of the cyanide, or sent directly to the tailings storage facility from the which the cyanide containing solution is recycled to the leach plant. 
       The gold adsorbed on the activated carbon is recovered from the carbon by elution, typically with a hot caustic aqueous cyanide solution. Gold was obtained by the method of cementation or by elektrorefining of the solution, while the carbon can be reused. Activated carbon can be reused by washing with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) to remove metallic impurity and neutralized with caustic soda. Reactivation is then performed first using a rotary kiln at a temperature of 730 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes. Generally, 10% of carbon lost in the process due to abrasion. During the process, the performance of carbon has decreased so that the efficiency of carbon sequestration need to be monitored and if necessary the addition of new carbon. In traditional mining usually carbon that has been filled with gold complexes directly in the fuel. Dust from the burning of carbon was then taken to be melted. Contained metal can be purified directly. This is done because of cost considerations and technology.When carbon is not used to adsorb the gold dissolved in the above-Mentioned leach slurry, the gold bearing solution must be separated from the solids components utilizing filtration or thickening units. The resultant solution, Referred to as pregnant solution, is subjected to Further treatment (other than by carbon absorption) to recover the dissolved gold