Monthly Archives: February 2016


I am watching the reports on the Irish elections. From constituency to another, the scene is always the same. The representative of the election comity reads the results announcing that someone was elected to the Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies, Parliament) . Then you hear cheering and then the camera swings towards the camp of the successful candidate. There you see a lot of happy people, shouting and laughing. And then two of them would lift the proud new member of the Parliament on their shoulders and carry him around.

What is the root of this custom? Well it is simple really. If you are proud of something, you flaunt it, carry it around, show it off by carrying it around on yourself, wearing it. A rare and expensive item of clothing or jewelry or a rare and expensive gadget thus become status symbols, which distinguish you from the crowd. This is the ultimate example of a something that you carry around to show off: an engagement ring. I got him, I won…

If you are a soldier, you proudly wear uniform of your army and insignia of your unit and the flag of your clan, tribe or country. You proudly carry a good and expensive sword which is not easy to get by and you carry the heads or scalps of the dead enemies that you have killed using that sword or a medal saying that you have killed many enemies (much more practical). And you get to be carried on your comrade’s shoulders:

If you are a sportsman you carry a laurel wreath on your head that says you were victorious or a medal or a trophy in a shape of cup or plate. You proudly wrap yourself in the flag of your country and carry it around. And you get to be carried on your supporter’s shoulders:

If you are proud of a person, you carry him around on your shoulder. This was a treatment which is reserved for heroes and champions. Having a hero or a champion as a member of your family, clan or tribe becomes a status symbol which makes the family, clan or tribe look good. And what do you do with a status symbol? You carry it around, show it off by carrying it around.

In Serbian and in other South Slavic languages, the word for “to carry, to wear” is “nos”. The word “nositi” means “to carry, to wear”, “prinos = pri + nos = towards, to us + brings” means yield, “odnos = od + nos = from + brings” means relationship and so on. There is a whole cluster of words built around the root “nos” meaning to carry. And believe or not one of those words is the word for pride: “ponos =  po + nos” which literally means “something you carry on yourself, something you flaunt, something you carry with you to show off”… 

So the people above lifted and carried their political candidate, champion, warrior on their shoulders (po nos), because they, by getting elected, winning championship, killing enemies, became something to be proud of and because of that, something that you can carry around with pride (ponos) because it makes you look good to because you are part of the winning team, army, family, clan, tribe….

Cool, don’t you think?

Have a look at another Serbian word built using the root “nos” to carry.  The word “nošnja” means costume, traditional dress, something you carry on yourself to mark yourself as a member of a family, clan, tribe. The traditional dress conveys the customs, manners and style of the tribe. It says this is “us” and we are proud of who “we” are. The most visible part of the traditional dress was always the head dress. No wonder then that caps, hats, helmets, hairstyles, feather dress were often used as symbols of identity which were worn (nos) as sign of clan, tribe, national pride (ponos).

Here as some examples of what I am talking about:

Phrigian cap:

Turkish fes:

Serbian šajkača:

Six nations feather gear:

There are many more examples of traditional clothing items which were used as a distinguishing marks and were worn to show pride of being part of a group. This custom of wearing what you are proud of is very strong even today. 

Wearing a football jersey or scarf of the football team you support is just such an example of carrying (nos) of what you are proud of (ponos).

The same goes for the GAA (Gaelic athletic association). Here the link between belonging to the old tribal supporter group and the new sports team supporter group is clearly visible. The teams are actually linked to a village (clan) and county (tribe) and the players still play dressed in tribal colors wearing tribal crests while the old war flags of their tribes (counties) are waving in the wind. 

If you are a member of a church or a cult, you proudly wear the symbol of your church to show everyone that you are a believer:

If you are a member of a political party, you proudly wear the symbols of the party to show that you belong to it and that you share their ideas:

Even if you are a punk, and you think you are different from anyone else, you are basically proudly wearing punk symbols which show that you are a member of a punk subculture. You also wear badges and symbols of the Punk bands that you are most proud of…


We wear (carry on our self) what we are proud of. And this link is preserved in South Slavic languages through the words “nos” meaning “to carry, to wear” and “ponos” meaning “pride” but literally meaning “to carry, wear on yourself”. 

Now what is interesting is that in Irish the word “nós“, from old Irish “nós“, means custom; manner, style, tradition, fame, renown…Coincidence? 

I already wrote in many of my posts about the strange fact that this word “nos” meaning “carry, wear, bring” in Slavic languages is found in the names of the ancient Celtic Deities: Chernunos (Cherno + nos = darkness + carry, brings. The bringer of darkness, equivalent of the Slavic Chernbog) and Belenos (Belo + nos = Whiteness + carry, brings. The bringer of light, equivalent of the Slavic Belbog), Taranos (tar, dar + nos = strike, noise + brings. The bringer of thunders, storms). But the problem is that in Celtic languages the word “nos” does not mean “to carry”…

So how did the word “nos” end up in Celtic languages and when?

Gold Prospecting in america on a Budget

Gold Prospecting in america on a Budget

The continuing says of Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming are safeguarded from regulations that prevent gold detectors from selecting gold.The main thing you must consider if you opt to venture out prospecting for gold, is normally that the house laws are rather severe in this country. Practically, if you don’t own the property, there is no need any to trespass, let alone take up a prospecting venture. Make sure to check with who owns the property before, make certain they’re okay together with your interests and barter the right cost for your stay and the percent they’ll gain in the event that you do find something. Make sure you draft papers and get them to legalized properly in order to avoid complications.

It usually is serious trouble to precious metal pan in virtually any national park also. The federal government does this to safeguard the wildlife and normal means in these parks. If you do opt to prospect below you shall need to obtain a permit.

It is understandable that it may seem to be overwhelming when trying to locate a location to prospect in, nevertheless the world is an enormous place and there is usually tons of gold found still.

The general consensus in terms of precious metal prospecting is to retain it as a spare time activity. The past has ensured that gold deposits have already been drained out. Start in the basic safety and ease of your backyard and, once you have been released to the prospecting community and its demands, you might opt to go further and take part in more serious, but possibly more successful activities.

Be sure you consider the property where you intend on prospecting for gold on. The laws and regulations are severe for trespassing. If you don’t own the property there is no need the proper to even set foot on the house, so forget about by using a gold detector. Be sure you are checking the house ownership to make certain the owner has decided to allow you usage of the property. Sometimes they’ll charge you a cost for access to their house but this will be minimal if. Also ensure you have an agreement deal with the dog owner if you do actually obtain their permission for certain when out doors.

Gold Prospecting Tip 1 – The Physical Features of Gold

Gold Prospecting Tip 1 – The Physical Features of Gold

Before engaging in the juicy tips seriously, it is crucial that you realize gold as a physical entity, this will permit you to envisage where gold will maintain any kind of river program and/or placer mining condition. Fortunately for gold prospectors across the world gold has some attributes that let it separate itself from other supplies in a stream or river.

Chief among these is definitely its density or particular gravity, it really is almost 20 times considerably more dense than normal water, and generally up to three to four 4 times considerably more dense than other things it’s likely you’ll come across in an average river setting. It will be great if it were 20 times less dense than the rest in the river as this might let it float on the waters area, providing it into our holding out scoops straight, even so, there’s a flip area to that precious metal coin, if gold was to float on the rivers floor it would –

be nowhere in close proximity to as scarce
consequently be completely worthless

Nature gives away little or nothing free of charge, there’s always a cost to pay. Gold is certainly dense, scarce,very difficult and nearly immune to the duration of time (all of the gold on the world has been produced in the heart and soul of a dying superstar and is vast amounts of years outdated, yet it even now retains its beautiful yellowish gleam), if we wish a few of this magical products, its likely to make us work for this.

With golds density staying so excessive and liquefaction occurring through the entire riverbed (especially during floods), the gold finally finds its way right down to the lower degrees of the riverbed. It’ll be within the river gravels of the existing river and could also be within the river gravels of prior rivers that may own run in the past, but no do longer.

Thus yes, you guessed it, if you wish to find gold, you should dig, then dig even more and a bit more, and eventually, for anyone who is in a precious metal bearing area you shall find precious metal, all it requires is just a little sweat and just a little persistence.

In the above good examples What i’m saying is alluvial gold – gold which includes been broken clear of its supply (a gold bearing quartz vein) by the relentless forces of our mother earth and finally found its way right into a river program. Alluvial gold is often within small grains which range from an identical size to the common salt grain, because of sizes nearly imperceptible to the eye. Prospecting for alluvial gold is known as “Placer Mining”, with Placer from the Spanish “to make sure you”, this term is employed because placer mining is easier than the other ways of gold prospecting.

Other styles of gold deposits happen to be – lode deposits, residual deposits, bench deposits, stream bed deposits, historical rivers and flood layers,we will discover more about these later, we have plenty of to get learning without complicating issues.

That you realize the physical qualities of gold now, and its density when compared to other resources in the river gravels, we can now visualize what will be happening inside river system and where the gold will deposit itself, this can make it less complicated for a prospector to recuperate more gold for fewer work.

Now its period to observe how gold is usually distributed throughout and gravels and as a complete result, how to locate gold in a river.

Macizo City Gold Prospecting Trip in California's Mother Celebrazione

Macizo City Gold Prospecting Trip in California’s Mother Celebrazione

Every year for the past several years I use taken a vacation and prospecting trip to the little town of Serranía City, high in the Sierra Nevada range of California to prospect intended for gold on a buddy’s mining claim. Sierra Metropolis is a historic yellow metal rush town of any very little more than 200 folks. Known mostly for the rich lode mines, that also had some wealthy placers too. Its at this point a center for numerous recreational activities including sales, fishing, etc.

The North Fork of the Yuba River flows through the town and is also a good known gold bearing riv and has been greatly dredged, especially in the area both above and below the town of Downieville. It runs pertaining to miles through the Serranía Nevada range. Where I actually is working it features been little worked on the last 10 years as what he statements is pretty much encircled by private property, and permission to trespass is definitely required. The spot wherever I prospect is basically a well-known local swimming gap for the kids — but you will find nice nuggets in the bedrock and among the boulders in the back.

The whole of Serranía County is an location known for large, rough gold nuggets. The geology in much of the county is very advantageous for the organization of large gold. Historically, even more large nuggets have recently been present in Sierra County that some other county in California, as well as the region in and around the North Fork has produced almost all of those finds. During the gold rush, miners identified a 25 pound piece inside the North pay of the Yuba lake between Sierra City and Downieville. An 11 pounder was also found with the Jersey diggings on the hill just above Downieville. Lots of the side streams that dump into North hand with the Yuba have exhibited lots of large nuggets and quartz/gold specimens containing among 50 and 150 oz . of gold. There can be even an unsubstantiated adventure of a heart formed nugget from one of those side streams that comprised over 1800 ounces of gold. Most of the really large nuggets had been found in early times when thousands of miners scoured the hills, nevertheless even in today’s age of smaller scale functions and weekend prospectors, wealthy pockets of crystalline rare metal and multi-ounce nuggets continue to be found coming from time to time. While an example, some close friends of mine found a 7. 5 ounce piece while dredging in The month of september 2004.

Sierra county is usually famous for the sixteen to at least 1 mine hard rock my very own whose deep workings always yield rich pockets of gold in quartz. Through the summer of 2004, the mine yielded a sole pocket containing almost a million dollars worth of gold. As in the 18 to 1, important and enormous finds continue to be made periodically found in Sierra County.

Sierra Metropolis, California is located about 1: 45 minutes by my home in Sparks. This season I moved my own trailer into the community campground for an whole month, from mid-July to Mid-August. I wasn’t generally there the complete time, but We would come up to get long weekends, and well then go home to job. While the deserts happen to be roasting, Sierra City reaches 4200 feet and the weather this time of year is often great with highs in the low 90s and lows on the low 50s. The water temps runs about 65, which is great but still pleasurable — seems very nice to be prospecting inside the water that time of year. I spend almost all of my prospecting time dredging. In many ways, compact scale suction dredging was born on the North fork of the Yuba, numerous of the early on dredging pioneers like Ernie Keene tested their house made machines out right here, sometimes with amazing accomplishment. Over the years, We’ve made a number of friends at the camp site there and many present up year in year out, just want I do. There are actually detecting opportunities, high bank, sniping, lode gold recruiting and a good amount of other points for the prospector to do. I always desire I had more period when my season terminates and I need to come home. Its a great location to visit and those who discover this kind of hidden gem of the Sierra range usually are incredibly happy they were undertaking.

Gold Prospecting Equipment and Where to find Gold

Gold Prospecting Equipment and Where to find Gold

Here sent to you is a tiny overview of weeks of study on the web. I have been so upset that there surely is not just one central place however where one can learn All the information on gold prospecting in a single place. This subject can be geology and geology isn’t simple essentially. Certain geologic and chemical processes cause the formations we want for but even then it really is embedded in rock. In this article hopefully I can get rid of some confusion how we are able to locate what we are seeking along with a number of the gold prospecting tools involved. For more information you can travel to my site. My aim is to take the beginner and present them the various tools to go out and discover some gold with out a lot of frustration.

The Bureau Of Area Management

BLM’s site includes maps on what the property in the region you are searching has been used for. And yes it will demonstrate any existing promises in the area.

Maps are among the finest tools you might have.

Use the over the internet mapping sites like Google maps, Bing or MapQuest to learn where you intend to go before you go out. A gold prospect map I’ve made is designed for Colorado that presents all places where gold has been within days gone by. Other states can be available in the near future so check my internet site and request a state if it generally does not appear. Searching at the maps it isn’t often you will discover a mine so big a company has can be found in and started an open up pit mine but there are a few spots. They are basic to see if you zoom in to the maps you can view a huge hole dug out and in the event that you adhere to along the edges of the sites you will discover gold.

Gold is indeed dense and serious it ultimately works its approach down by the road of least resistance in to the lowest spot.


The major rivers will be a good spot to commence to look since rivers maneuver as time passes cutting off locations where it once flowed departing a dry tract where in fact the river once was. One could go there and discover on dry ground and locate a placer deposit perhaps. Using topographical maps on the web you can spot where such places exist. You may also trace the geology where drinking water runoff patterns become tributaries for a local river when you look at hills or mountains in the region you are searching. It really is in these places where in fact the water has consumed the rock above that gold in the rock can be freed running off right into a gulch that’s dry almost all of the time and you will seek out gold there. Actually some spots where no-one looks since it is zoned for casing and there is casing already up. When you can talk the dog owner ask authorization to prospect on the area. When we hit the 3rd and last level of the Bull gold marketplace it’ll be so amazing that it’ll be remembered as the utmost lucrative gold event ever sold. So how much they are going to let you keep will rely upon the persons you deal with.


Places where glaciers have already been are good areas to look because the glacier has overly enthusiastic the soil and torn the rock into rubble producing lose gold simple to find. That you can do a seek out glaciers that might have been near you. Here in Colorado there are plenty of such places and I am searching and let you know how productive I have already been.

In today’s world because the technology has increased considerably we are able to find things others could have missed. People can look in the tailings of abandoned mines which will be piles left out by miners. It is important to notice that entering any mine is comparable to suicide being that they are so very dangerous especially old mines. There exists a lot of information you will need to read to comprehend just how dangerous this could be, so avoid entering any mine.

The 3rd and last level of the precious metal bull industry will be remembered as the utmost lucrative gold event ever

The most important Gold Recruiting Tools

The most important Gold Recruiting Tools

Shovels, griddles, dredges along with other physical methods are pretty much useless without having several specific kinds of knowledge.

Brains Are more Important When compared with Hands

The substantial price associated with gold has inspired a huge number of people to be amateur prospectors. Most of them are investing their weekends or perhaps vacations in search of the yellowish metal. High platinum prices have also fueled any surge inside the sales associated with gold griddles, portable dredges, metal detectors along with other gold sales tools.

Anyone that buys most of these tools won’t be instantly equipped to get gold. The only thing that most of these tools will perform is assist you recover the gold when you’re a couple of feet or a few inches far from it. Getting to the next location — finding platinum – uses a more crucial tool — a neural that was adequately prepared with the proper kinds of knowledge.

The kinds of knowledge required to effectively probability for platinum include:

A familiarity with where gold may be found in the past
A familiarity with to legally probability
A familiarity with prospecting laws and regulations
A familiarity with gold build up and geology
An understanding of sales methods

This is the brief summary in the types associated with knowledge as listed above. These summaries tend to be brief want . complete presentation for every type associated with knowledge might contain ample information for at least one college-level program.

Where Provides Gold Been Found in the past?

The United states has already been more greatly prospected for gold than the majority of nations within this planet. Millions of individuals have already been mustered for the search for gold during several platinum rushes in numerous places.

The phrase “gold rush” makes most people think associated with locations such as California, Ak and Colorado. However, gold rushes have also occurred inside states such as North Carolina as well as Georgia. It is often a pretty safe bet that nearly every stream in the states has already been planned for gold at least one time. In essentially the most famous platinum locations much of the sediment may be through platinum pans, sluices or perhaps dredges multiple times.

States that have reported business gold creation include: The state of alabama, Alaska, State of arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Baltimore, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New South america, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington as well as Wyoming.

The geological survey for most states having commercial platinum production has prepared starting and technical information about the platinum deposits as well as mining background. The United states Geological Questionnaire has organized detailed maps and reviews for the majority of the major platinum mining areas and contains prepared several general attention publications about gold. In addition there are lots associated with prospecting manuals and maps written for amateur prospectors.
Most in the land in the states is off-limits for prospecting. High of it is actually privately owned or operated by individuals, corporations, institutions and trusts. Usually do not prospect about these lands unless you have contacted the actual and purchased explicit choice. Explicit choice includes but seriously isn’t limited to: (A) where you need to prospect; (B) when you need to prospect; (C) just what methods you need to use as well as any exterior or subsurface disturbance that could result; (D) what you need to remove from the property; (E) exactly how anything found will be reported to and distributed to the landowner. Getting most of these permissions seriously isn’t a “courtesy” – these are a requirement. Prospecting about private property or home without them you could end up your public arrest for trespassing, vandalism or perhaps theft.

Generally in most states, county-level government authorities maintain maps of property or home ownership that you can consult to acquire ownership as well as boundary facts. Property ownership is frequently public information and many local governments allow it to become very easy that you should access it. Sometimes you could find this facts online or perhaps purchase copies in the official property ownership documents. Some community governments havent invested making this information simple to operate or in keeping it latest. If you choosed to use this data in all probability you’ll need a superb bit associated with mapping expertise to move property border to maps or GPS DEVICE devices for easy use within the discipline. Good luck!

When you determine the master of a pathway of property, be knowledgeable that the one who owns the counter might certainly not own or perhaps control any minerals which might be present. The vitamin rights into a surface parcel can be sold or perhaps leased to someone else. So, ensure that you learn who owns the counter and that controls any minerals.

A number of owners associated with mineral-bearing countries have exposed them for “fee sales. ” These house owners will let you prospect as well as keep what we find when you pay these people a fee before starting or pay out a paid upon what we remove. These could be great places to get a beginner to master because prospecting there’s often effortless and lots of the experience people there appreciate sharing just what they understand. You can certainly learn a whole lot and make some great friends. These places could be an enjoyable experience if that you are courteous to others as well as obey the owner’s regulations.

Land that’s not under private ownership is frequently owned simply by federal, point out and community governments. These lands can be off-limits to prospectors since they are being preserved as a park or perhaps conservation region. Before you go sales on government-owned lands you ought to contact the agency the boss of that land and have explicit permissions just like what ended up being described for private countries above. Removing any rock or perhaps digging about these lands might get you in a lot more trouble in comparison with on private property. This is the quote from your Bureau associated with Land Supervision publication.

Persons that remove vitamin materials from public lands with out a permit or perhaps contract are believed unauthorized people and inside trespass. Also, unauthorized users could possibly be fined up to $100, 000 as well as sentenced as much as 1 calendar year in offender.

The Bureau of Land Management is in charge of 700 million acres associated with mineral house lands, mostly inside the western United states. A wide range of commercial as well as recreational prospecting develops on BLM countries. The agency is a superb place to start out in determining and legally look for gold about public property. Start simply by contacting the field office near the location where you wish to prospect.

Last but not least, before you go into the field it a very good idea to use a map in which clearly scars the boundaries in the land that you are permitted to prospect. Or you would possibly load the home boundaries in a GPS system. Property boundaries can be unmarked inside the field and keeping track of your location while sales in heavy vegetation or perhaps on toned open land could be challenging.

What Prospecting Regulations Apply?

Whenever you choosed to enter open public or private land and initiate prospecting it can be your responsibility to know the community prospecting, land make use of and ecological regulations that could apply to your actions from that certain location. Sometimes permits are expected, the methods that you use could be regulated, and there might be environmental laws that prevent you from digging, unsettling streams as well as using apparatus or motor vehicles. Some these have absolutely no relationship to gold prospecting but it really is even now your responsibility to know and follow them.

A good starting point is to look for the government agency accountable for administering the land that you would like to use as well as contact these people for facts. They could provide each of the information which you are required or refer one to the proper location.

Many of these areas enable prospectors to “stake any claim” that provides them temporary rights to operate on a limited chunk of property. If you find a valuable location you should probably stake any claim. It can also be a smart idea to learn exactly how claims tend to be marked to help you steer clear of them. The actual penalties for jumping a angry prospector’s state are unpredictable!

Gold Build up and Recruiting Methods

Precious metal occurs inside two standard deposit varieties: lode platinum and placer platinum. A familiarity with how these types of deposits form and in which they occur is important for obtaining gold. Knowledge will certainly multiply your likelihood of success. There are numerous books, websites as well as government reviews that summarize gold build up and how to look for them.

An understanding of sales methods can also be essential. If you’re on any stream containing placer gold but you don’t understand how to pan then you definately will overlook the platinum right under you. Learning regarding the types associated with tools available and the best way to use them is important for success. Again, there are many books, sites and govt reports in which describe most of these methods.

How popular is gold prospecting?

How popular is gold prospecting?

Gold prospecting as a hobby is getting bigger and bigger and as gold prices skyrocket and the economy tanks further, gold prospecting will only get bigger.

Let me first roll back the clock a bit and start by saying that back in 94′ I had just purchased a brand new Baja Bayrunner center console fishing boat and being into fishing I would always look for some shows on that particular sport and there wasn’t much to be found. Now, you can go to the outdoor network or one of the other outdoor related channels on tv and find fishing shows all day long, and I think that as a growing hobby, gold prospecting can get to the point where there are at least more than just one show on tv.

TV networks starting to take a closer look at gold prospecting for entertainment.

Take a look at Gold Rush Alaska on the Discovery Channel, that was their highest rated show ever!! It beat out Deadliest Catch and all the rest of their line up, which kind of reinforces what Boomer and I have been saying for years and that is.. that the market is out there, and there are more and more folks joining the ranks for their shot at finding gold. Its fun, its good exercise, its camping, its enjoying the great outdoors, and if your lucky…well then… its also profitable, but if not, then at least you always have fun.

What is it like prospecting for gold out there in the middle of nowhere?

Picture this….your driving your 4×4 down a trail, 35 miles from the nearest paved road, you locate a nice clearing off the trail with plenty of area’s to work your drywasher or metal detector, enough room to set up a couple of tents and have a nice fire so you pull over and in an hour or so, boom! You are all set up and ready to spend the next two or three days having fun, when the sun goes down you fire up the grill, throw on some big ol’ fat steaks with some whole sliced tater’s and some veg-all and your ready for a feast.

After dinner you pull out the radio, pop on your I-pod and enjoy some music, light the campfire, crack open some frostie’s and then threaten all your buddies with the fact that you will be the one who finds a 1 ounce nugget this weekend…and come up with a game plan for tomorrow…whilst spinning some yarns of the past. If you haven’t done this yet…you aren’t living!!

Now lets just say for the next two days you don’t find any gold, could you then call it a bad trip?? No way! Don’t forget there’s still fun in the hunt! Next time you will just have to find a better spot that’s all, good thing is… you haven’t seen another person or vehicle go by the entire weekend, just the peaceful serenity of the desert interspersed with the mechanical yet beautiful chug-chug of a drywasher or the audio threshold of your metal detector, it does NOT… get any better than that! Now you might not roll the way we do, and you don’t have to, just to have fun, sometimes just being out there is fun enough.

Whats the future for gold prospecting?

So as the years go on and this hobby of gold prospecting grows, so will the information, new websites will pop up, older ones will get bigger and better, and maybe…just maybe, there will be a whole variety of gold prospecting shows on TV as well, but until then, there some great gold prospecting books as well as some good gold prospecting related online forums to keep us entertained as well as motivated in the off season. As a pal of mine and a great author named Jim Straight is quoted as saying…

“A detector sitting in a closet only finds…dust”

Platinum Prospecting: For Fun or To obtain Rich?

Platinum Prospecting: For Fun or To obtain Rich?

A modern day yellow metal panning is underway. With prices at an all time high a lot more gold prospecting are heading in the mining fields of Arizona, The state of nevada, California, New Mexico, Alaska and lots of other places across the Oughout. S. and other gold bearing parts of the planet earth. In the mining and prospecting world it’s simple to routinely hear of men plus women gold seekers spending lots of money on prospecting equipment they have not used, having no experience acquiring gold and purchasing worthless mining claims with hope of eye-catching it rich. People who find themselves mining the miners are in the real.

Recreational gold mining and prospecting has evolved into popular outdoor recreation in a lot of countries, including New Zealand (especially along with Otago), Australia, South Africa, Wales (at Dolaucothi plus in Gwynedd), in Canada and in the usa especially in western states and also elsewhere. Recreational gold mining is nearly entirely small-scale placer mining.

Gold trommel could be the mining of alluvial deposits (deposits connected with sand and gravel in modern-day or ancient stream beds) regarding minerals. This may be done by means of open-pit (also called open-cast mining) or by various different types of tunneling into ancient riverbeds. Excavation can be accomplished using water pressure (hydraulic mining), expanse excavating equipment or tunneling tools.

Gold mining and prospecting things to do allowed on public lands vary while using the agency and the location. Gold pans and shovels tend to be allowed, but sluice boxes and suction dredges can be prohibited in some areas. The Department of Agriculture in the U. S. is now on the watch that recreational gold panning plus gold prospecting in national forests is permitted providing that no machinery or explosives are used, no waterways are diverted, without the need of permanent or semi-permanent structures usually are meant. There are public mining areas in most states, and prospecting may allow anyone to stake a gold placer claim or other form of gold mining claim in many areas. Some public lands happen to be set aside for recreational yellow metal panning. Some private land entrepreneurs furthermore give permission for small-scale yellow metal mining.

The beauty of this new rush is we are able to experience it and see the successes and failures simply because unfold in the fields. Gold Mining and prospecting equipment sales are in an all time high, advertising in gold prospecting and mining magazines is going to be sold at premium prices and the BLM is processing more yellow metal claims than any time within the past few 20 years. Metal sensors charging $4, 000. 00 plus suitable for gold are selling like gold pans in the days of the gold rush around the 1800s. This is a very exciting time transforming into a gold prospector.

Gold Trommel [http: //www. goldtrommel. com/] is the simplest way to prospect for gold and also this article on how to pan for gold will come in handy for those venturing out with gold to them and excitement in their brains for gold.

Gold Prospecting Resource for the Southeastern Gold Prospector

Gold Prospecting Resource for the Southeastern Gold Prospector

The first significant Us Gold Rush took place with Cabarrus County, North Carolina, in 1799 at this time day Reed’s Gold Mine. Throughout 1799, Conrad Reed found a 17-pound yellowish “rock” in Little Meadow Creek around the family farm in Cabarrus Local, North Carolina. The “rock” was used to be a door-stop for 3 years until finally a jeweler identified the “rock” to be a large gold nugget! Reed had no perception of the value of the gold and sold it towards jeweler for $3. 50. The actual value of the nugget at that time was around $3, 600. Feels like the jeweler got a excellent deal!

Google Earth is a powerful user-friendly satellite imagery viewing plan. It is a very valuable tool for finding gold destinations. Combined with the downloadable add-ons, Google Earth could easily be your primary research tool for planning your gold prospecting adventures. I utilize this tool myself when plotting out my next prospecting vacation to a new area. I have discovered myself using Google Earth using the add-ons I’m about to offer everyone almost daily. All of the following tools/resources are totally totally free!

The sluice box is one of the oldest and most efficient forms of placer gold prospecting equipment. The common sluice box dates back in terms of the 1300’s. The name of the inventor is unknown. It was widely and many commonly used during the Gold Rushes of the 1800’s. In the 1800’s sluice boxes were typically referred to as Long Toms. The Long Tom sluice bought its name from being that long. Generally any sluice over 6 feet was/is known as a Long Tom. There is no documentation that explains why someone came up with taking that approach, but if I had to guess I would say it was to minimize labor and process more stuff. Panning sure does take a toll around the back!

Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Vermont, South Carolina, Virginia and Western side Virginia contain recreational gold recruiting locations. Some states located inside Southeast do not contain recreational prospecting areas for the public. If your state does not, you can jump over towards Clubs page to see in case a club you can join owns any land designed for members to gold prospect.

Jump over to the Clubs page to see if you experience a GPAA or private gold prospecting club towards you. All the clubs listed are friendly and eager to recognize new members! There is a club with each gold-bearing state in the Southeast if you are not a member, you’ll want to go to the website in order to find a club near you currently.

St Bega

The village of St Bees is just south of St Bees Head, the most westerly point of Cumbria, 50 miles from the Scottish border. 

The name St Bees is a corruption of the Norse name for the village, which is given in the earliest charter of the Priory as “Kyrkeby becok”, which can be translated as the “Church town of Bega”. It’s well known for the Norman St Bees Priory dating from 1120 dedicated to Saint Bega.  

Saint Bega was reputedly a saint of the Early Middle Ages. Her life was described in a medieval manuscript “The Life of St Bega”, part of a collection of various English saints’ lives that belonged to Holmcultram Abbey and is dated to the mid-13th century. According to this manuscript, she was a virtuous Irish princess who valued virginity. She was promised in marriage to a Viking prince who was “son of the king of Norway”. On hearing this, Bega, fearing for her virginity, fled across the Irish sea to land at St. Bees on the Cumbrian coast. There she settled for a time, in a virgin cell which she built herself in a grove, leading a life of exemplary piety. Then, the Viking pirates started raiding the Cumbrian coast, and fearing (again) for her virginity, she moved over to Northumbria.

The place where she fled was Bassenthwaite, only a short distance away from St Bees peninsula, in the Lake District, where we find church dedicated to St. Bega. 

The Bassenthwaite church of St Bega’s is located on the shores of Bassenthwaite Lake. Legends tell that St Bega settled at Bassenthwaite, and may indeed have been buried in this spot. The architectural history of the church offers more mystery. There are large, uneven stones in the north and east walls, which suggest a Roman building. In the interior, a simple, rounded chancel arch supported on thick pillars certainly suggests a pre-Norman date. The most likely foundation of the current building, then, is about 950, but it is possible that the current church was created on the foundations of a much earlier building. The large arch between the chancel and north aisle is 12th century, and a later 14th century arch is located in the nave. Sadly, Victorian restoration has done away with any earlier evidence that might illuminate the history of the church. The simple font at the west end of the nave dates to about 1300. Above the south doorway hangs a royal coat of arms dating to 1745. It was erected, we are told, after the rebellion of Bonnie Prince Charlie, and was meant to remind citizens of where their loyalties should lie.

When Saint Bega fled the Cumbrian coast and moved to Northumbria, she allegedly left behind her one worldly possession, a bracelet. The writer of the Life of Saint Bega relates that St Bega was given a bracelet in Ireland by a heavenly being. which she left behind in St Bees when she travelled to Northumberland. It was described as having a holy cross upon it, which fits a style of the 9th and 10th centuries. The bracelet is mentioned several times in the charters of St Bees Priory; one instance is in the middle of the 13th century, when an oath was taken by John of Hale “having touched the sacred things … and upon the bracelet of St Bega”. An account roll from as late as 1516/1517 records offerings of 67s. 9d to the bracelet of St Bega; so the cult and the relic were still a going concern at that late time.

The phraseology of the early charters indicates a pre-Norman church at St Bees dedicated to St Bega. At the granting of the first charter of the Benedictine priory one of the witnesses was Gillebecoc; meaning devotee of Beghoc, indicating a Bega cult already in existence when the Norman-era Priory was built in St. Bees in the 12th Century, around 1120. The remains of a 10th century high cross from the graveyard of the St. Bees church confirm that the Norman-era Priory was built on the site of an older church, pre Norman church. 

Cult or person?

Present day scholarship tends to treat St Bega not as a historical personage but a cult. As one scholar states; “The discovery of inconsistencies between these medieval texts, coupled with the significance attached to her jewellery (said to have been left in Cumbria on her departure for the north-east), now indicate that the abbess never existed. … More plausible is the suggestion that St Bega was the personification of a Cumbrian cult centred on ‘her’ bracelet (Old English: beag)”. The 1999 edition of the Dictionary of National Biography includes an article (by Professor Robert Bartlett) that treats St Bega as a mythical figure. A 1980 paper by John Todd offers a comprehensive review of the historical references to that date, including a discussion on her existence. He finishes with the words “We must search for the historical St Bega, not in the glorious years of the Northumbrian Kingdom, but the dark years of its fall. But our search may well be disappointed”.

So cult or person?

I would suggest person, or even better persons. 

In Serbian we have this word cluster:

beg, begstvo, bijeg, bježanje, bižanje – escape, running away
begaj, bjež, biž – go away, run away, escape
begati, bežati, bižati – to escape, to run away
beganje, bežanje, bižanje – escaping, running away
bega, beži, biži – runs away
bega, pobegulja – the one (feminine) who ran away
beganija, bežanija – exodus, refuge
izbegati, izbegnuti, izbeći – avoid, to find refuge
odbegnuti, odbeći – to run away from
pobegnuti, pobeći – to escape, to be safe

So lets go back now to the legend about Saint Bega. She run away from Ireland and she was a refugee in Cumbria. She was the one who is on the run, which is in Serbian the one who “bega, beži, biži (beeži)”. She landed on a peninsula which is now called Bees (beez) and the place where she originally lived was called Bega and Bees (beez).

Do you think that this is a Coincidence? Is it possible that the legend of Saint Bega actually records an exodus from Ireland of a group of people who ran away (bega, beži, biži) across the see to Cumbria? The question here is who in this scenario would have used the word “bega, beži, biži” to describe the refugees? Refugees themselves or the locals from Cumbria?

“Origin of the Anglo – Saxon race” is a book published in 1906 by Thomas William Shore, author of ‘a history of Hampshire,’ etc, Honorary secretary London and Middlesex archaeological society; honorary Organizing secretary of the Hampshire field club and Archaeological society. In it the author gives detailed analysis of the “Anglo Saxons”, and shows us that both Angles and Saxons were just terms used for complex federations of south Baltic Germanic, Norse and West Slavic tribes. He describes the late Iron Age and early medieval northern central Europe as a melting pot where future great nations of Franks, Angles, Saxons, Danes, Norse, Slavs, were being created from tribal federations of mixed Germanic and Slavic ethnic, linguistic and cultural origin. I presented all the parts regarding the Slavic tribes in my post about this book

If you read this post you will see that one of the tribes which comprised the Anglian confederation forces were Wends, and among them Sorbs, the Baltic Serbs. These same Serbs were also part of the later Danish Viking confederation forces which included a lot of South Baltic Slavs. I believe that later the Serbs were also part of the Norse forces which were a direct descendants of the Danish West Slavic Viking confederation. Serbs were always described as darker than the other Slavs, and the book “Origin of the Anglo-Saxon race” says this about them among the Angles and the Danes of the Early Medieval time:

“…This consideration of the probable origin of the great proportion of brunettes in two of the south midland counties of England leads us to that of the colour-names as surnames and place-names, which may probably have been derived from their origin settlers. For example, there is the common name Brown. This has been derived from the Anglo-Saxon brun, signifying brown. It is not reasonable to doubt that when our forefathers called a man Brun or Brown, they gave him this name as descriptive of his brown complexion. The probability that the brunettes were common is supported by the frequent references to persons named Brun in Anglo-Saxon literature. Brun was a name not confined to England in the Anglo-Saxon and later periods. On the contrary, we find that it was common name in ancient Germany. The typical place-name Bruninga-feld occurs in a charter of AEthelstan dated A. D. 938, `in loco qui Bruninga-feld dicitur.` Bruesham, hants, is mentioned in a charter of Edward `the Elder` about 900. Brunesford is another suggestive name. Bruman is mentioned as a personal name in Anglo-Saxon records of the eleventh century, and examples of the name Bruning are somewhat numerous in documents of the same period. At the present time old place-names, such as Braunschweig or Brunswick, are common in Germany. The custom of calling people by colour-names from their personal appearance, or places after them, was clearly not peculiar to our own country. It is probable that the name Brunswick was derived from the brown complexion of its original inhabitants. The map published by Ripley, based on the official ethnological survey of Germany, shows that parts of the country near Brunswick have a higher percentage of brunettes than the districts further north. Beddoe also made observations on a number of Brunswick peasantry, and records some remarkable facts relating to the proportion of brunettes among those who came under his observation.

The name Brunswick appears to be one of significance, and the Wendish names in that part of Germany, Wendeburg, Wendhausen,and Wenden, may be compared with the Buckinghamshire Domesday names Wendovre, Weneslai, and Wandene, and with Wenriga or Wenrige in hartfordshire. The probable connection of the Wends – some tribes of whom, such as the Sorbs, are known to have been dark – with parts of Germany near Brunswick, and with parts of Herts and Bucks, is shown by these names. Domesday Book tells us of huscarls in Buckinghamshire, and of people who bore such names as Suarting, Suiert, Suen, Suert, and Suiuard, among its land- owners, and it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that such names refer to people of dark complexions. Among the lahmens of Lincoln, a very Danish town, there were also apparently some so-called Danes of a dark complexion, for Domesday Book mentions Suartin, son of Gribold ; Suardine, son of Hardenut ; and Suartine Sortsbrand, son of Ulf.

In view of this, and the evidence relating to the use of the Anglo-Saxon word brun in English place-names,we are not, I think, justified in deciding that all English names which begin with brun, modernized into burn in many cases by the well-known shifting of the r sound, have been derived from burn, a bourn or stream, rather than from brun, brown. Such names as Bruninga-feld and Brunesham point to the opposite conclusion, that Brun in such names refers to people, probably so named from their complexions. If a large proportion of the settlers in the counties of Buckingham and Hertford were of a brown complexion, it is clear that they would have been less likely to have been called Brun or brown by their neighbours than brunettes would in other counties, where such a complexion may have been rarer, and consequently more likely to have attracted the notice of the people around them. It is not probable that people who were originally designated by the colour-names Brown, Black, Gray, or the like, gave themselves these names. They most likely received them from others.

The evidence concerning brown people in England during the Anglo-Saxon period which can be derived from the place-names Brun is supplemented by that supplied in at least some of the old place-names beginning with dun and duning. Dun is an Old English word denoting a colour partaking of brown and black, and where it occurs at the beginning of words in such a combination as Duningland, It is possible that it refers to brown people or their children, rather than to the Anglo-Celtic word dun, a hill or fortified place.

As regards the ancient brown race or races of North Europe, there can be no doubt of their existence in the south-east of Norway and in the east of Friesland. There can be no doubt about the important influence which the old Wendish race has had in the north-eastern parts of Germany in transmitting to their descendants a more brunette complexion than prevails among the people of Hanover, Holstein, and Westphalia, of more pure Teutonic descent. We cannot reasonably doubt that, in view of such a survival of brown people as we find at the present time in the provinces of North Holland, Drenthe and Overijssel, which form the hinterland of the ancient Frisian country, numerous brunettes must have come into England among the Frisians. It would be as unreasonable to doubt this as it would to think that during the Norwegian immigration into England all the brown people of Norway were precluded from leaving their country because they were brunettes, or that the Wends, who undoubtedly settled in England in considerable numbers, were none of them of a brunette type.
The survival of some people with broad heads and of a brown type in parts of Drenthe, Gelderland, and Overijssel appears unmistakable. They present a remarkable contrast in appearance to their Frisian neighbours, who are of a different complexion in regard to hair and skin, and are specially characterized as long-headed.

It was in Gelderland that ancient Thiel was situated, and the men of Thiel and those of Brune were apparently recognised as different people from the real Frisians, for in the later Anglo-Saxon laws relating to the sojourn of strangers within the City of London it is stated that `the men of the Emperor may lodge within the city wherever they please, except those of Tiesle and of Brune.

The consideration of the evidence that people of Brunette complexions were among the Anglo-Saxon settlers in England leads on to that of people of a still darker hue, the dark, black, or brown-black settlers. Probably there must have been some of these among the Anglo-Saxons, for we meet with the personal names Blacman, Blaecman, Blakeman, Blacaman, Blac`sunu, Blaecca, and Blachman, in various documents of the period. The same kind of evidence is met with among the oldest place-names. Blacmannebergh is mentioned in an Anglo-Saxon charter; Blachemanestone was the name of a place in Dorset, and Blachemenstone that of a place in Kent. Blacheshale and Blachenhale are Domesday names of places in Somerset, and Blachingelei occurs in the Domesday record of Surrey. The name Blachemone occurs in the Hertfordshire survey and Blachene in Lincoln. Among the earliest names of the same kind in the charters we find Blacanden in Hants and Blacandon in Dorset. The places called Blachemanestone in Dorset and Blachemenestone in Kent were on or quite close to the coast, a circumstance which points to the settlers having come to these places by water rather than to a survival of black people of the Celtic race having been left in them.
Among old place-names of the same kind in various counties, some of which are met with in later, but still old, records, we find Blakeney in Glouceatershire ; Blakeney in Norfolk; Blakenham in Suffolk; Blakemere, an ancient hamlet, and Blakesware, near Ware in Hertfordshire. This Hertford name is worthy of note in reference to what has been said concerning the brunettes in that county at the present time. Another circumstance connected with these names which it is desirable to remember is the absence of evidence to show that the Old English ever called any of the darker-complexioned Britons brown men or black men. Their name for them was Wealas. So far as I am aware, not a single instance occurs in which the Welsh are mentioned in any Anglo-Saxon document as black or brown people ; on the contrary, the Welsh annals mention black Vikings on the coast, as if they were men of unusual personal appearance.
There is another old word used by the Anglo-Saxons to denote black or brown-black – the word sweart. The personal names Stuart and Sueart may have been derived from this word, and may have originally denoted people of a darker-brown or black complexion. Some names of this kind are mentioned in the Domesday record of Buckinghamshire and Lincolnshire. These may be of Scandinavian origin, for the ekename or nickname Svarti is found in the Northern sagas. Halfden `the Black` was the name of a King of Norway who died in 863. The so-called black men of the Anglo-Saxon period probably included some of the darker Wendish people among them, immigrants or descendants of people of the same race as the ancestors of the Sorbs of Lausatia on the border of Saxony and Prussia at the present day.

Some of the darker Wends may well have been among the Black Vikings referred to in the Irish annals, as well as in those of Wales, and may have been the people who have left the Anglo-Saxon name Blavmanne-berghe, which occurs in one of the charters, Blachemenestone on the Kentish coast, and Blachemanstone on the Dorset coast. As late as the time of the Domesday Survey we meet with records of people apparently named after their dark complexions. In Buckinghamshire, blacheman, Suartinus, and othersare mentioned; in Sussex, one named Blac; in Suffolk, Blakeemannus and Saurtingus; and others at Lincoln. The invasion of the coast of the British Isles by Viking of a dark or brown complexion rests on historical evidence which is too circumstantial to admit of doubt. In the Irish annals the Black Vikings are called Dubh-Ghenti, or Black Gentiles. These Black Gentiles on some occasions fought against other plunderers of the Irish coasts known as the Fair Gentiles, who can hardly have been others than the fair Danes or Northmen. In the year 851 the Black Gentiles came to Athcliath – i.e., Dublin. In 852 we are told that eight ships of the Finn-Ghenti arrived and fought against the Dubh-Ghenti for three days, and that the Dubh-Ghenti were victorious. The black Vikings appear at this time to have had a settlement in or close to Dublin, and during the ninth century were much in evidence on the Irish coast. In 877 a great battle was fought at Loch-Cuan between them and the Fair Gentiles, in which Albann, Chief of the black Gentiles, fell. He may well have beena chieftain of the race of the Northern Sorbs of the Mecklenburg coast.

The Danes and Norse, having the general race characteristics of tall, fair men, must have been sharply distinguished in appearance from Vikings, such as those of Jomborg, for many of these were probably of a dark complexion. There is an interesting record of the descent of dark sea-rovers on the coast of North Wales in the `Annales Cambriae,` under the year 987, which tells us that Gothrit, son of Harald, with black men, devastated Anglesea, and captured two thousand men. Another entry in the same record tells us that Meredut redeemed the captives from the black men. This account in the Welsh annals receives some confirmation in the Sagas of the Norse kings, one of which tells us that Olav Trygvesson was for three years, 982-985, king in Vindland – i.e., Wendland – where he resided with his Queen, to whom he was much attached ; but on her death, whoses loss he greatly felt, he had no more pleasure in Vindland. He therefore provided himself with ships and went on a Viking expedition, first plundering Friesland and the coast all the way to Flanders. Thence he sailed to Northumberland, plundered its coast and those of Scotland, Man, Cumberland, and Bretland – i.e., Wales – during the years 985-988, calling himself a Russian under the name of Ode. From these two separate accounts there can be but little doubt, notwithstanding the differences in the names, of the descent on the coast of North Wales at this time of dark sea-rovers under a Scandinavian leader, and it is difficult to see who they were if not dark-complexioned Wends or other allies of the Norsemen. It is possible some of these dark Vikings may have been allies or mercenaries from the south of Europe, where the Norse made conquests…”
So at the time of the arrival of the Saint Bega to Cumbria, Dark Vikings, probably of Danish Slavic (Serbian) origin, were in Controll of Dublin, but they were at war with the White Vikings, probably of Norse origin. These Dark Vikings were also the ones who attacked Cumbria during the same period and Settled there as well. At the same time when these Dark Danish Slavic Vikings were in the East of Ireland and plundering Cumbria, Cumbria was part of the Angle kingdom which, according to the Origin of the Anglo-Saxon race, had a large Dark Wendish (Serbian) minority population.

This is what we can find in the history of Cumbria and Northumbria:

“At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain (c. A.D. 410) the inhabitants of Cumberland were Cumbric-speaking native “Romano-Britons” who were probably descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii (sometimes considered to be a sub-tribe of the Brigantes) that the Roman Empire had conquered in about A.D. 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria. The names “Cumbria”, “Cymru” (the native Welsh name for Wales), “Cambria” (the medieval Latinization of Welsh Cymru) and “Cumberland” are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Brittonic, which originally meant ‘compatriots’. During the Early Middle Ages Cumberland formed the core of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged. By the end of the 7th century most of Cumberland had been incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. The Kingdom of Northumbria was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom. The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom’s territory, the Humber estuary. In 867 Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the Danelaw, after its conquest by the brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht, as a puppet king. Despite the pillaging of the kingdom, Viking rule brought lucrative trade to Northumbria, especially at their capital York. The kingdom passed between English, Norse and Norse-Gaelic kings until it was finally absorbed by King Eadred after the death of the last independent Northumbrian monarch, Erik Bloodaxe, in 954. After the English regained the territory of the former kingdom, Scots invasions reduced Northumbria to an earldom stretching from the Humber to the Tweed. Northumbria was disputed between the emerging kingdoms of England and Scotland. The land north of the Tweed was finally ceded to Scotland in 1018 as a result of the battle of Carham. Yorkshire and Northumberland were first mentioned as separate in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1065. In 1092 Cumberland was invaded by William II and incorporated into England.”
So it is possible that the “Irish” princess which fled (bega) to Cumbria was one of the Dark Vikings (Wends, Serbs?) of Dublinia. It is also possible that she was a Gaelic princess from Leinster who fled the Viking invasion and who arrived to Anglian coast populated by the Dark Angles (Wends, Serbs?). It is also possible that it could have been both? Either one of these people could have used the word “bega, beži, biži” to describe someone who is escaping, running away, hiding, taking refuge. In this case the dialectic version “beži” of the word “bega” would have produced “bees” (originally pronounced “bez”). So bees would have been “bež”, the place of refuge, and “bega” would have been the one who ran away to “bež”, the place of refuge.

What is very interesting is that the Norman church of Saint Bega contains several grave stones and grave slabs with a “Serbian cross”. 

This is a Serbian cross. It is an ancient symbol first time found among the Vinča symbols. It then inermittentnly pops out in Evroasia and Egypt throughout then next 7000 years until it finally appears on the Serbian medieval heraldry. It is still disputed what the meaning of the four arcs in the symbol is. I will dedicate a whole post to resolving this dispute (hopefully once and for all). 

This one is the symbol of Serbia, from Korenić-Neorić Armorial (1595). 

 And these are carved grave stones and grave slabs from the St Bees priory.

The above stone shows an elaborate version of a “Serbian cross”, with at the centre, a six-petalled flower (Perunika, Perun’s flower). The slab has been re-used at a later date and a much cruder design was superimposed.

The above stone also has a “Serbian cross”, with looped objects, which have been identified as stirrups, in the two upper quadrants of the head centre. Below, a bowman stands on the left of the shaft, with on the right a sword. The bowman, has a quiver slung over his shoulder.

The above stone has a “Serbian cross” formed by four sunk quadrants within a circle, with a cross pate at the centre; on the left of the incised cross shaft is a clasped book, possibly signifying the Gospels. 

The above stone has a “Serbian cross” formed by four embossed arcs tied together to form a cross, with lozenge-shaped buds breaking the circle. On the right of the cross shaft, carved in relief within a sunk panel, is a sword. The stone is chamfered. 

The above stone has a “Serbian cross” formed by four embossed closed arcs tied together to form a cross, with lozenge-shaped buds breaking the circle. Sword on right of shaft, with down-curved quillons. 

The above stone has a cross formed by four overlaping embosed arcs. This is basically a deformed “Serbian cross”. This is also a representation of a solar year which is confirmed by the fact that the cross shaft has an overlay with a small disc or ring, which symbolises a solar year, sun circle. 

This is an interesting “solar” cross built into the structure of the Norman church. I have no information what period this cross was dated to, but it definitely postdates the Norman church.

 Again you see the four arcs (formed by deep gouges) radiating from the center of the cross formed by the line connecting the five circles.

Coincidence? It is possible that whoever escaped from Ireland and settled in this area of Cumbria and Northumberland, whover was the “bega”, used and venerated the “Serbian cross”. It is therefore possible that the story about the misterious St Bega’s bracelet is a misunderstanding of this old symbol by the later settlers who even called the crosses on the above stones “bracelet heads” and the misunderstanding stemmed from the fact that the old English word for bracelet was “beag”. Curiously, this is not the only Norman Basilica which is linked to the “Serbian cross”. More curiously the “Serbian cross” is found at the core of the oldest “Anglo-Saxon” crosses. And even more curiously, the “Serbian cross” is found at the core of the oldest “Celtic crosses”, both in Britain and in Ireland. These oldest “Celtic crosses” were said to have been “stone coppies of much older wooden originals”. Funny that wooden high crosses of both the so called “Serbian cross” type and “Celtic cross” type are found as village crosses in Serbia even today. So what is exactly going on here? I will write about all of this in my future posts.

Until the next time, have fun, stay happy 🙂