Category Archives: GOLD ORE

The Ultimate Video game of Hide and Seek

The Ultimate Video game of Hide and Seek

Many articles and literature have been discussed gold prospecting and gold restoration. They give you a general notion of the probably places to find and accumulate gold flakes and small nuggets. Most rivers and streams that are stated, are the kinds that flow known gold bearing regions through. The gold flakes are liberated from there host rock by various kinds of natural occurrences such as for example: Erosion, Thawing and freezing, Glacial slides, etc. These gold flakes and tiny nuggets are learned in the creeks and rivers by evaluation panning and visibly searching at the materials for noticeable gold contaminants. This is called: Seeking for color. When gold particles have emerged in the check panning, then it really is apparent that the region is a good location to gather a lot more gold flakes and perhaps little nuggets if the prospector digs enough sand and dirt.

The largest problem with all this known details and the article content and literature and discussions, etc, Is this: No-one ever mentions almost all the well invisible gold that is normally a lot more abundant and yields a lot more reward for your time and effort. There are literally a large number of prospectors out there looking for gold and getting limited amounts since they have no idea just how much gold they skipped or actually put back its environment because they didn’t see the color. Seeking for color is important but it can’t be the final deciding factor of if gold is actually within the region. Certainly not seeing any color, Generally causes prospectors to presume the region is not worthwhile and they also go somewhere else to check out color.

I will mention several truth in this paragraph which will clarify many misunderstandings about liberated, placer gold. These details will be very useful to all or any of you that will be seriously interested in collecting and prospecting even more gold. Fact number 1: Gold that truly appears like gold, has been active in the river sands in the last decade roughly. Gold particles that will be staged in the river lender gravels are layered right now there predicated on the flood stage, great water stream that brought them presently there. The reason why the gold contaminants have a glowing golden color is as a result of the abrasion during storm activity. This can be a case in every waterways which contain placer gold. Fact number 2: Ancient river bed material gets the potential of hiding much bigger levels of placer gold. These deposits happen to be referred to as benches. These deposits can be found at various amounts above today’s water flow level. Quite often these layers could be recognized by learning the eroded river banking institutions and being attentive to the sedimentary layers specially the rusty seeking layers that clearly contained large levels of iron. As the river was slicing its pathway down through the planet earth, various aged layers from centuries again could be observed. Fact number 3: Digging and sampling the old gravels and sands will extremely seldom show dazzling, shiny gold particles. The gold from these layers will be covered within corrosion and mineralization. Imagine a gold coin buried for years and years in a soil which has iron and lime and several other minerals. If you were to dig it up and have a close look, would it not is predicted by you to appear to be gold? It could actually be coated with rust or mineralization predicated on the encompassing soil structure and the minerals within this matrix. Liberated gold contaminants and nuggets from centuries back were touring in a slurry of mud and different minerals until they truly became settled and trapped in certain layers predicated on particle pounds and size. These gold contaminants merge with their encircling earth mineral colors, rust color especially.

Samples of material ought to be extracted from river banking institutions by digging into and somewhat below the rusty coloured layers. These samples ought to be panned meticulously and the heaviest materials ought to be closely inspected with a solid magnifier or scope. If gold is usually spotted hiding within this materials then certain quantities ought to be excavated and located into buckets and taken up to a place where it is usually cautiously panned or sluiced for maximal recovery of this concealed gold. When you get started finding areas which may have certain levels of this invisible gold, you should excavate parts of this materials in a horizontal routine good estimated sedimentary level. This material could be positioned in plastic material buckets and taken residence for processing.

The well invisible gold that you extract from these old benches is actually locked up in mineralization and the rusty, chunky pieces must be extensively cleaned up and shattered apart by a soft chemical process. There are various safe chemicals that works extremely well for this. Among my favorites is definitely: C.L.R., (means: Calcium, Lime, Rust), It really is offered by most hardware retailers and large shops in the shower detergents and cleaning area. Another simple combination of White and Sodium Vinegar, (Rock Salt and White Vinegar), Works perfectly. You simply mix in approx two cups packed with this kind of moderate acid along with normal water to slurry all the dry dirt you have in the bucket. Nowadays you place the bucket away for just two or three days and nights and allow it soak and softly dissolve the nutrients that will be hiding the gold contaminants. After a couple of days you will have to add a lot of fresh water and mix vigorously to scrub the materials and liberate the gold in order that it usually is extracted by panning or whatever approach you prefer. Now the Hidden Gold will be obvious and you have won this game of Hide and Seek just.

Platinum Prospecting – Seven Items YOU’LL NEED For an effective Hunt

Platinum Prospecting – Seven Items YOU’LL NEED For an effective Hunt

Gold prospecting should be one of the very most interesting outdoor activities somebody who enjoys a lttle bit of effort could ever be a part of.

Those that know these exact things tell us that there surely is considerably more gold in the bottom than ever before has been observed. You will need to venture out there and trail it down just.

Gold ‘s been around for a large number of years. Today using the precious metal watch when you shop around at people, gold bands, and the coins stored away in choices you start to appreciate the amount of an integral part of our lives it is becoming. It really is almost indestructible. The known simple truth is that most probably, the gold charms you are using has been made from old charms or cash or recycled from anybody of one thousand items that is made up of gold.

Back the 1890 period gold was learned in the Yukon place in Canada. Huge amount of money price of the yellowish metal arrived before the hurry dies down, however, placer platinum has been mined there probably as part of your still.

Placer platinum is what’s found by the prospector with the skillet. Placer silver is rare metal that is situated in the gravel of waterways and streams which is loose in the bottom.

Auriferous debris are where in fact the gold is situated in blood vessels in the rock and roll and must be mined out.

For now we will assume that you may well be enthusiastic about prospecting for placer gold. There are specific items you shall should do and have.

Prospector Certificate. Anyone can get one for approximately $5.00 roughly depending your geographical area. The Office of Mines generally is where you apply. Fill out the easy form and they’ll offer you a license, booklet on where you can prospect and where never to do it, and claim tags.
Claims maps. In the event that you go directly to the claims office you’ll be able to view the maps they have on hand for his or her point out or province. Nearly every square inches of your district has been mapped. The maps show every mining declare that is available. Don’t assume all map is a topographical one so you might need it maps for the region you want to prospect.
GPS unit. These small devices are amazing and simple to use. This is an extremely helpful tool to take with you, particularly if you are in a heavily wooded area. Besides that you desire a good compass.
Small tools. Hammer, clean, shovel, surveyors tape, a few claws, axe.
Gold pan. There are various types so suffice to state that you’ll require one to use.
Notebook with pencils or pens. You intend to keep good notes when you move about the region.
Pry bar. Again there are various types available. You use this to go stones and pry pieces taken care of.

Read your prospectors e book of rules and be acquainted with the intricacies of prospecting prior to going out to provide it a go. You must prepare yourself in all honesty in your prospecting. Follow the guidelines as says owners protect their promises to the ultimate level rigidly.

Weekend Platinum Prospecting Mining Safety

Weekend Platinum Prospecting Mining Safety

Let me begin by declaring that weekend silver prospecting and mining can be considered a whole lot of fun plus some adventure for your household. You get away in to the environment and get some good sunlight and exercise which donate to good health insurance and robust living. Talking about health the essential thing that you should assess with regards to mining and platinum prospecting is that you will be toned to get out and hike and climb around areas that could be in a position to produce silver for you.

If you fail to walk or climb 50-75 feet without getting less than breath you don’t belong out in crazy country looking for silver. You will need to limit your yellow metal prospecting to areas that are within a brief walking distance. Search for rivers, desert or channels washes offering quick access for you as well as your equipment.

Some people tell me they have a quad runner and a cellphone to have them out into precious metal bearing areas which is all well and good but if you have physical limits you don’t want to venture out too much and by itself where your safeness could be jeopardized. Always select others who wish to go prospecting along or with members of the family who will go along with you. Remember safety first always. Some individuals take two way radios or mobile phones with them in which to stay touch with family and or emergency services. However retain in mind that mobile phones do not necessarily work in mountainous areas and two way radios work best in type of site configurations. Radios do not work very well nearby of your blended band of massive hill boulders. I understand this from experience.

There are a few other things to take into account regarding protection issues. Are you currently in snake and scorpion country or in a location where there are red ants and Dark brown Recluse or Dark Widow spiders? If you’re there are a few other factors that you should think about then.

Since I stay in the Southwest just about everyone has of the above mentioned to cope with whenever we are out precious metal hunting. The very first thing to keep in mind when walking out in virtually any untamed environment is to produce a complete great deal of sound. Rattlesnakes are equally as afraid folks even as we are of these aside from the Green Mohave rattler. The Green Mohave rattler can be quite extreme and chase you and bite you truly. Not all of these do that but enough of these do for me personally to offer you this warning. So be certain to transport a walking adhere to smack the bushes if you are making a path right down to your mining site.

Sound usually scares the snakes away or they’ll inform you where these are by rattling their tails at you. In the event that you come after one which is coiled up looking enjoy it could attack – stand still initially then slowly cool off. I take my walking keep before me in the event I must use a sweeping movement if the snake attacks to press it quickly apart and get myself away. The next phase is to wear leather gloves. I could think of several individuals who I understand that come to above their type of site onto a gravel bench greater than their eye and were bitten by snakes and spiders…no leather was got by them gloves on.

Now you will be ready to go rare metal mining with a variety of devices that you may take with you. Starters focus on silver panning usually, or dry cleansing, sluicing, or high-banking. Others use material detectors to attempt to find precious metal nuggets and silver veins or specimens that contain broken from precious metal bearing materials. Overall its fun and with repetition and endurance it takes care of not merely with gold at hand but with the experience of everything.

P. Wooldridge is a tiny miner, weekend prospector and RN. Her enthusiasm is to talk about her knowledge and skills with those people who have never considered prospecting for yellow metal and with the ones that are actively carrying it out. Patti has written a how to manual for many who are enthusiastic about extracting silver from various materials like hard rock and roll, micron yellow metal materials, black fine sand and other options. Have a look at her most recent website to check out the spider bite that almost induced a man to reduce his thumb.

Gold Prospecting Equipment – IN THE EVENT YOU Build Or Buy?

Gold Prospecting Equipment – IN THE EVENT YOU Build Or Buy?

Last summer, for the first time, a pal and I designed a interest for gold prospecting. Nonetheless it wasn’t just the finding of the gold that people loved, it had been more the knowledge of the methods found in finding it, of the engineering of how sluice and pans boxes work. We thought we would build our very own equipment (generally), veering from the spendy stuff aquired online. Do not get me wrong. I’m sure stuff works great. But we wanted the enthusiasm to do it all ourselves. Just how did we build our very own gold prospecting equipment? It had been simple.

Both most common devices in gold prospecting will be the precious metal pan, and the sluice package. Your standard gold pan is quite cheap, usually about $10. Black plastic material is what I favor. The gold shows up against the black perfectly. Sluice boxes, however, can get a lttle bit pricey. Creating a sluice is truly a lot simpler than it sounds. Using bits of plastic cut into simple geometric shapes (squares and rectangles) we create a very lightweight sluice box from plastic by just gluing the pieces as well as plastic cement and waiting a day. For ideas on building your individual sluice box, one merely has to enter “sluice package plans” into Google and they’re going to find dozens of step-by-step instructions how to build their particular gold getting contraption. A sluice package has a very easy design. It’s simply a box, in the end. Who can’t create a box? A whole lot of outfitters will attempt and offer you on lightweight, expensive aluminum, wanting a lot of money for a straightforward sluice box. I say why pay the money when you can build a sluice with common materials easily.

But back again to the sluice field for a moment. Lightweight plastic is simple to work with. Provided that one doesn’t buy bed sheets greater than a quarter inch thick, it really is reasonably lower with an exacto blade. Add to that the price tag on a bottle of plastic cement and you will have your own sluice box in a matter of a couple of hours and whatever other bits of gold prospecting equipment you will need.

The one thing left to accomplish is discover a river which has a reasonable volume of gold even now hiding aside. In California, that’s really simple to do. Gold infested rivers will be scattered all throughout southern and northern California. Different places have different degrees of gold, but I’m let’s assume that those reading this curently have a spot chosen.

Gold Prospecting in america on a Budget

Gold Prospecting in america on a Budget

The continuing says of Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming are safeguarded from regulations that prevent gold detectors from selecting gold.The main thing you must consider if you opt to venture out prospecting for gold, is normally that the house laws are rather severe in this country. Practically, if you don’t own the property, there is no need any to trespass, let alone take up a prospecting venture. Make sure to check with who owns the property before, make certain they’re okay together with your interests and barter the right cost for your stay and the percent they’ll gain in the event that you do find something. Make sure you draft papers and get them to legalized properly in order to avoid complications.

It usually is serious trouble to precious metal pan in virtually any national park also. The federal government does this to safeguard the wildlife and normal means in these parks. If you do opt to prospect below you shall need to obtain a permit.

It is understandable that it may seem to be overwhelming when trying to locate a location to prospect in, nevertheless the world is an enormous place and there is usually tons of gold found still.

The general consensus in terms of precious metal prospecting is to retain it as a spare time activity. The past has ensured that gold deposits have already been drained out. Start in the basic safety and ease of your backyard and, once you have been released to the prospecting community and its demands, you might opt to go further and take part in more serious, but possibly more successful activities.

Be sure you consider the property where you intend on prospecting for gold on. The laws and regulations are severe for trespassing. If you don’t own the property there is no need the proper to even set foot on the house, so forget about by using a gold detector. Be sure you are checking the house ownership to make certain the owner has decided to allow you usage of the property. Sometimes they’ll charge you a cost for access to their house but this will be minimal if. Also ensure you have an agreement deal with the dog owner if you do actually obtain their permission for certain when out doors.

The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by John Marsden

     In the gold mining mineral processing separation process valuable minerals from impurities is very important to do, which is mechanically to produce products that are rich in valuable minerals. Currently a lot of various processing techniques used to obtain the maximum results in the gold mining industry is growing very rapidly at this time. I saw some references a book about The Chemistry of Gold Extraction that maybe you can use in the learning process in the gold mining industry

    This technical reference provides the broad base of knowledge necessary for those working in gold extraction and gold processing industries. The Chemistry of Gold Extraction is an extensively revised and comprehensively updated edition of the well-known reference first published in 1992. It provides the broad base of knowledge that is now required by all those working in the gold extraction and gold processing industries. The book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by  John Marsden bridges the gap between research and industry by emphasizing the practical applications of chemical principles and techniques.

The technical reference book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by John Marsden includes in-depth discussions on:
  • Historical Developments
  • Ore Deposits and Process Mineralogy
  • Process Selection
  • Principles of Gold Hydrometallurgy
  • Oxidative Pretreatment
  • Leaching
  • Solution Purification and Concentration
  • Recovery
  • Surface Chemical Methods
  • Refining
  • Effluent Treatment
  • Industrial Applications
      Book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction by John Marsden is an amazingly detailed exposition of gold concentration and extraction. Many books are long on the theory and very thin on the engineering issues involved. Other books are enhanced process diagrams and cookbooks and give little theory. This book is a treasure with a perfect blend of theory and the engineering process to utilize that theory. Therefore, a comprehensive view of the entire processing from geology to gold bar is a real treat. One other item – trying to get this information on a paper by paper basis would be financially ruinous as well as maddening.
      Book The Chemistry of Gold Extraction is a valuable asset for all professionals involved in the precious metals industries. It will be of particular interest and use to engineers and scientists (including extraction metallurgists, mineral/metallurgical engineers, electrochemists, chemical engineers, mineral technologists, mining engineers, and material scientists), plant managers and operators, academics, educators, and students working in gold extraction in either production, research, or consulting capacities.

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10 world gold mining industries biggest 2012

          Based on data from the U.S. Geological Society, estimated gold ore reserves that have not been mined and available on the planet about 51,000 tons, making gold business is getting bigger. As quoted from the latest data issued by Thompson Reuters and the Metals Economics Group reported by CNBC, Monday (19/03/2012), here are 10 of the world’s biggest gold mine owned by public companies. Mines is considered as the greatest because it comes from one mine alone, not the production of several mines which are then combined by a single company.
It’s her 10 largest gold mine in the world, among others :
1. Grasberg Mine
     Grasberg is a world-class mining complex in Indonesia, where Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold is engaged in exploration and development, mining and milling of ore containing copper, gold and silver. The Grasberg mine is located at Tembagapura in Irian Jaya, which is Indonesia’s easternmost province, on the western half of the island of New Guinea. The mine is about 60 miles north of Timika, a town of about 100,000 people. There are about two million people living in this region. The Lorentz National Park, which has several glaciers on its peaks, lies to the east of the mine. The mine is 96 km north of the southwest coast of Indonesia at elevations of 2,500 to 4,200 m above sea level. 
  •  Location: Papua, Indonesia
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.444.000 0z
  • The area: 527,400 acres
  • Miners: Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine and underground

 2. Cortez Mine 

      The Cortez gold mine is located 100 kilometres southwest of Elko, Nevada in Lander County. The Cortez Pipeline property is 11 kilometres northwest and the Cortez Pediment property (which includes the Cortez Hills deposit) is 4 kilometres southeast of the original Cortez milling complex. The Cortez property covers approximately 2,800 square kilometres on one of the world’s most highly prospective mineral trends. The Cortez gold mine is located 100 kilometres southwest of Elko, Nevada, USA. It is a complex of several open pit mines, an underground mine, concentrator and several heap leach pads. The Pipeline and South Pipeline deposits are mined by conventional open-pit methods.
  • Location: Elko, Nevada.
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.421.000 oz
  • Broad Area: 1081 square meters
  • Miners: Barrick Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine
3. Yanacocha Gold Mine
       The mine is located high in the Andes Mountains, 28 miles north of Cajamarca and 375 miles north of Lima. The property encompasses 607 square miles (1,572 square kilometers). Yanacocha is the largest gold producer in South America. Yanacocha is a complex of five open pit mines, four leach pads, two gold recovery plants and a crushing and agglomeration facility. The Yanacocha mine operation is spread across 600 square miles at altitudes as high as 14,000 feet. Actual operations cover approximately 60 square miles. The highest operational area is at 13,812 feet. The Yanacocha gold deposits are high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits, with varying amounts of silver, that occur within a mid to late Miocene flow dome field with associated volcaniclastic rocks and minor lacustrine sediments. The gold is associated with silver bearing enargite and arsenian pyrite. Copper mineralization occurs at depth below the gold deposits.
  • Location: Cajamarca, Peru
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.293.000 oz
  • The area: 96 square feet
  • Miners: Mining Newmont, Buenaventura, World Bank
  • Type of mine: open
4. Goldstrike mine
       The Goldstrike Complex is located on the Carlin Trend, united mining industries the most prolific in the Western Hemisphere, about 60 kilometres northwest of Elko, Nevada, USA. The Goldstrike operations consist of the Betze-Post open pit mine and the Meikle and Rodeo underground mines which are located just north of the Betze-Post pit, along the same mineralized trend. The 9,921-acre (4,000 ha) Goldstrike property is split into two main listings, the Betze-Post Mine and the Meikle Mine (separately listed). The Betze-Post mine includes the Screamer zone, North Betze, and West Betze areas. The separately listed Meikle mine includes the Rodeo and Griffin deposits.
  • Location: Eureka and Elko Counties, Nevada.
  • Gold production in 2011: 1.088.000 oz
  • Miners: Barrick Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine and underground
5. Veladero Gold mine
         The Veladero mine is located in the San Juan Province of Argentina, immediately to the south of the Pascua-Lama property in the highly prospective Frontera District. The property is located at elevations of 4,000 and 4,850 metres above sea level, approximately 374 kilometres northwest of the city of San Juan.Veladero is a conventional open-pit operation where ore is crushed by a two-stage crushing process and transported via overland conveyor and trucks to the leach pad area. Run-of-mine ore is trucked directly to the valley-fill leach pad.
  •  Veladero Gold Mine 
  • Location: San Juan, Argentina 
  • Gold production in 2011: 957,000 oz
  • Miners: Barrick Gold 
  • Type of mine: open mine

 6. Vall River Gold mine
        Anglo Gold Ashanti’s Great Noligwa underground gold mine is situated close to the town of Orkney, on the free state side of the Vaal River in South Africa. It adjoins Kopanang and Moab Khotsong as part of AngloGold’s extensive Vaal River operations, which comprise four gold plants, one uranium plant and a sulphuric acid plant. 
Geology and reserves
The reefs mined at Great Noligwa are the Vaal Reef and the Crystalkop Reef, with the Vaal Reef accounting for over 90% of the gold produced in the mine. The Vaal Reef consists of 85% of the ore reserve tonnage with mining grades between 10g/t and 20g/t. 
Mining and processing
“The reefs mined at Great Noligwa are the Vaal Reef and the Crystalkop Reef, with the Vaal Reef accounting for over 90% of the gold produced in the mine.” The complexity of the ore at Great Noligwa has necessitated a scattered mining strategy comprising a twin-shaft system serving eight main levels at an average depth of 2,400m.

  •  Location: Klerksdorp, South Africa
  • Gold production in 2011: 831,000 oz
  • The area: 14,602 acres
  • Miners: AngloGold Ashanti
  • Type of mine: underground mining

7. West Wits Mining

Savuka is situated on the West Wits line in the province of Gauteng, approximately 70km southwest of Johannesburg. Savuka is close to the town of Carletonville. The Carbon Leader Reef (CLR) is mined at depths varying between 3,137m and 3,457m below surface and the Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR) at a depth of 1,808m below surface.
  •  Location: Carletonville, South Africa 
  • Gold production in 2011: 792,000 oz
  • The area: 4188 acres 
  • Miners: Anglo Gold Ashanti 
  • Type of mine: underground mining
8. Lagunas Norte gold mine
             This is the concession for the Lagunas Norte gold mine which is located on the Alto Chicama property in north-central Peru at an elevation of 4,000 to 4,260 metres above sea level, and is owned by Barrick Gold Corporation. Lagunas Norte was one of the larger greenfield discoveries in its time capable of producing more than one million ounces in a year, and is one of Barrick’s lowest cost operations. The mine itself is an open-pit, crush, valley-fill heap leach operation.
  • Location: Santiago de Chuco, Peru
  • Gold production in 2011: 770,000 oz
  • Miners: Barrick Gold
  • Type of mine: open mine

9. Kalgoorlie Super Pit 

          The Fimiston Open Pit, colloquially known as the Super Pit, is Australia’s largest open cut gold mine. Mining industries in australia this is located off the Goldfields Highway on the south-east edge of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The pit is oblong in shape and is approximately 3.5 kilometres long, 1.5 kilometres wide and 360 metres deep. At these dimensions, it is large enough to be seen from space.
  •  Location: Kalgoorlie, Australia 
  • Gold production in 2011: 750,000 oz  
  • Miners: Barrick Gold; Newmont Mining 
  • Type of mine: open mine


 10. The Boddington Gold Mine 
  • Location: is a gold and copper mine located 17 km northwest of Boddington, Western      Australia.  A bedrock resource of almost 20 million ounces was identified
  • Gold production in 2011: 741,000 oz 
  • Miners: Newmont Mining
  • Type of mine: open mine 

Extracting Gold By Carbon In Pulp with Activated Carbon

       Carbon In Pulp is the absorption of compounds into carbon Dicyano Aurrat. In the process extracting gold by carbon in pulp with activated carbon occurs after the leaching of mineral ore slurry in a tank. And during the washing, the carbon-in-leach and adsorption occur simultaneously. In both processes mineral ore leaching slurry will be transferred from one tank into the recovery tank of carbon using a pumping machine. This is generally accomplished by passing the slurry through a series of adsorption vessels coupled with the periodic transfer of carbon, usually associated with pulp, and in the opposite direction. Column tanks are often used consists of a large carbon column (diameter 5 to 8 feet) and 15 to 20 feet in height, and filled with activated carbon. Minimum load of carbon rule of thumb is one pound of activated carbon per 0.1 ounces of gold are present in solution, and usually it’s a few pounds per 1 / 10 ounce
         Two main methods Carbon In Pulp (CIP) and Carbon Columns may consist of the most widely used technique for extracting gold today. Both methods use a large tank in the column parallel step where gold is dissolved in the slurry (pulp) through a chemical process and combine agitation, oxygen and cyanide. In CIP, the carbon is mixed with a solution of cyanide leach and ore agitated in the Tank leaching, and the adsorption process will separate the gold. This will bring together between carbon and gold cyanide solution which is attached to the carbon. Granular carbon is often hard to use in a variety of sizes between 10-16 mesh. Carbon is then filtered by using the screening, on-screen screening of carbon will settle and the liquid is finely ground ore (-100 mesh) will be screened out through the screen into the tank.CIP treatment system can be described simply as a picture diagram below:
Diagram of the processing of gold with carbon in pulp

 Function Of Activated Carbon For Gold Mining

    Activated carbon is widely used in the absorption of gold cyanide complexes in gold processing. This process can be applied to the clear solution through a fluidized bed column or participate in the process of leaching on the tank and the separation of carbon. Activated carbon in the cyanide process gold or commonly referred to as activated charcoal is charcoal made ​​from coconut shell charcoal, charcoal or wood or coal. The most widely used is granular activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal. With specific processing of the activation process such as treatment with high pressure and temperature, can be obtained activated carbon has a surface in the area. Glanural activated carbon derived from coconut shells are produced by pirolis with temperature 600-900 degrees Celsius by using an inert gas (argon or nitrogen) or by oxidation or combustion.

      Adsorption of gold complexes (especially ion disianoaurat) on activated carbon is the basis of modern techniques for gold extraction process. This process is very effective and has become a major factor in improving the productivity of the gold mining industry over the last 25 years (S., Mansooreh, Tahereh Kaghazchi, 2007). Carbon is very actively used in the process of recovery of dissolved gold, either by introducing direct to the CIL (carbon-in-leach) or CIP (carbon-in-pulp) tanks after leaching. Activated carbon adsorbs dissolved gold from gold leach pulp complex to be absorbed through the pores of the carbon.The most cost-effective process is to create adsorption of the dissolved gold onto activated carbon, resulting in an Easier solid-solid separation based on size To Achieve this ore particles must typically be Smaller than 100 μm while the carbon particles must be larger than 500 μm. Adsorption is achieved by Contacting the activated carbon with the agitated pulp. This can be done while the gold is still being leached with the CIL-process, or following leaching with the CIP-process. The CIL-process offers the advantage of Countering the adsorption of gold on carbonaceous or shale ore particles, but is more expensive due to less efficient adsorption, Increased gold inventory and Increased fouling and abrasion of the carbon. 
Activated carbon in contact with a pulp containing gold can typically recover more than 99.5% of the gold in the solution in 8 to 24 hours, Depending on the reactivity of the carbon, the amount of carbon used and the mixer’s efficiency. The loaded carbon is then separated from the pulp by water or screens That are swept hydrodynamically, thus Preventing blinding by the near sized carbon particles. The pulp residue is then either thickened to separate the cyanide containing solution for recovery / destruction of the cyanide, or sent directly to the tailings storage facility from the which the cyanide containing solution is recycled to the leach plant. 
       The gold adsorbed on the activated carbon is recovered from the carbon by elution, typically with a hot caustic aqueous cyanide solution. Gold was obtained by the method of cementation or by elektrorefining of the solution, while the carbon can be reused. Activated carbon can be reused by washing with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) to remove metallic impurity and neutralized with caustic soda. Reactivation is then performed first using a rotary kiln at a temperature of 730 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes. Generally, 10% of carbon lost in the process due to abrasion. During the process, the performance of carbon has decreased so that the efficiency of carbon sequestration need to be monitored and if necessary the addition of new carbon. In traditional mining usually carbon that has been filled with gold complexes directly in the fuel. Dust from the burning of carbon was then taken to be melted. Contained metal can be purified directly. This is done because of cost considerations and technology.When carbon is not used to adsorb the gold dissolved in the above-Mentioned leach slurry, the gold bearing solution must be separated from the solids components utilizing filtration or thickening units. The resultant solution, Referred to as pregnant solution, is subjected to Further treatment (other than by carbon absorption) to recover the dissolved gold 

Process Electrowinning For Gold Mining

Electrowinning is an electrochemical process used to reduce the metal cations to the cathode surface of an aqueous solution derived from the chemical leaching proces. Electrowinning or often referred to as electroextraction is the electrodeposition of metals from ore minerals that have dissolved into the liquid and will be processed using Electrorefining to remove impurities from the metal. Electrowinning an electrolytic process that is very old in the mining industry. The English chemist Humphry Davy first obtained sodium metal in the form of the element in 1807 by electrolysis of molten sodium hydroxide. And then in 1847 Maximilian, Duke of Leuchtenberg first to show an experiment about Electrorefining copper. Then James Elkington patented a commercial process in 1865 and successfully opened the first factory in Pembrey, Wales in 1870. The first commercial plant in the United States is Balbach and Sons Refining and smelting Company in Newark, New Jersey in 1883
     Electrowinning is applied to a variety of chemical solutions that are found in large mining industry. This process involves the use of alkaline cyanide solution as an electrolyte in a cell as the anode and cathode, among others, can use:

     ( – )   
99,99 %

( + )

Cell reaction that occurs is: Merkury dicoating Copper, Lead, Iron, Aluminum
Anode: 2OH-→ O2 + H2O + 2e-
Cathode: 2Au (CN) 2 – + 2e-→ 2Au + 4CN-
Overall: 2Au (CN) 2 – + 2OH-→ 2Au + O2 + H2O + 4CN-

         Metals most often processed in electrowinning techniques are copper, gold and silver. Most metals occur in nature in the form of oxidized ore and thus should be reduced to form a pure metal. Ore is dissolved into some preprocessing in aqueous electrolyte or in the molten salt and the resulting solution is electrolysis. Then deposited on the cathode metal (whether in solid or in liquid form), while the anodic reaction is usually oxygen evolution. Some metals are naturally present as metal sulfides; These include silver, tin, molybdenum, cadmium, nickel, silver, cobalt, and zinc. In addition, gold and platinum group metals associated with sulfidic base metal ores. Most metal sulfide or its salts, are electrically conductive and this allows for efficient electrochemical redox reaction occurs in the liquid state or in aqueous solution.Some metals, including arsenic and nickel did not come out, but still electrolyze the electrolyte solution. This is then reduced by a chemical reaction to improve the metal. Other metals, the metals during the processing of the target has been reduced but not deposited on the cathode, sank to the bottom of the electrolytic cell, where they form a substance called the anode anode mud or slime. Metals in the sludge can be removed with standard pyrorefining method.

         For practical purposes, the extent to which metals can be recovered by electrowinning depending on its position in the electromotive series. In general, metals that have a more positive electrode plate is the standard potential is more easily compared with less positive potentials. As an illustration, the metals are more noble, such as silver anda gold, can be removed from the solution to less than 1 mg / l by using a cathode while the flat plate with copper and tin, the concentration in the range of 0.5 to 1 g / L or more required to deposit a homogeneous metal. Electrowinning This applies mainly to remove metal from a solution containing high concentrations of metal ions moderate (> 3000 mg / l). Under 1,000 to 2,000 mg / l of metal, the process of conventional electrowinning become very inefficient but otherwise the benefit is in recovering the precious metals that would otherwise be converted into a metal hydroxide sludge by the waste water treatment system. In the electrowinning process will release gases create H + pH down so risky mengasilkan HCN gas. This gas is extremely dangerous and corrosive to the anode, to the alkaline cyanide solution must be maintained at pH 12.5.

Activation Over potential For The Evolution Of Selected Gases On Various Electrode Materials At 25 °C


Platinum ( Platinized )
    – 0.07 V    + 0.77 V   + 0.08 V    
– 0.07 V + 0.93 V
– 0.09 V + 1.02 V
Iron – 0.15 V + 0.75 V
Platinum ( Shiny )
– 0.16 V + 0.95 V
Silver – 0.22 V + 0.91 V
Nickel – 0.28 V + 0.56 V
Graphite – 0.62 V + 0.95 V + 0.12 V
Lead – 0.71 V + 0.81 V
Zinc – 0.77 V

Mercury -0.85 V
      In elektrowinning, the current is passed from inert anode through a liquid solution containing the metal absorption so that the metal is extracted and then stored in the electroplating process to the cathode. In electrorefining, the anode consists of a metal that is not pure, and will then pass a current through the anode which corroded acid electrolyte into the solution so that the electroplating process deposits refined pure metal to the cathode. Electrowinning is different from other recovery technologies (eg, evaporation, ion exchange) in a metal element that recovered than metal bearing solutions. Metals recovered are usually not pure enough for use as an anode material in a plating process. Because metal deposition rates associated with the available surface area, the cathode must be able to work and this is very important. Two types of flat plate and reticulated cathodes are used, each having its own advantages. Flat-plate cathode can be cleaned and reused, recovered and plated metal. Reticulated cathode has a higher deposition rate compared to the flat-plate cathode. However, they are not reusable and must be sent for recycling. Alternatively, the cathode starter from a pre-refined metals can be used, which became an integral part of the metal so it is ready for rolling or further processed.