Then the results of the retort in the pipeline may be taken for the melting process and the mercury was already able to be reused.
1. Elemental mercury (Hg) contained in glass thermometer, tensimeter mercury, dental amalgam, electrical equipment, batteries and paint rocks. Also used as a catalyst in the production of caustic soda and disinfectants as well as for the production of chlorine from sodium chloride.
2. Inorganic mercury: in the form of Hg + + (Mercuric) and Hg + (Mercurous) For example:
used as a disinfectant
– Mercurous chloride (HgCl) which are used for teething powder and laksansia (calomel)
– Mercurous fulminate which is flammable.
3. Organic mercury: present in some form, al :
– Methyl mercury and ethyl mercury which both include short chain alkyl forms encountered
as metal contaminants in the environment. For example eating fish contaminated with TSB.
– Can cause neurological and congenital disorders.
1. Avoid contacts with mercury when you’re doing the processing of gold, try to use any such protective rubber gloves.
2. Keep mercury is always in place a sealed like plastic bottles, metal or glass (not the container of aluminum).
3. Always add water above the liquid mercury, except for mercury which has been recycled or that have been used in gold processing.
4. Do not let spilled mercury because it is very difficult to clean it and take it, because mercury can be as small droplets of water that spilled ..
5. Mercury should not be one with other chemicals, put mercury on a separate room.
6. Using equipment that supports the safety and health.
7. Do not eat or smoke when using mercury.
8. Use just enough mercury.
Soak mercury in solution with the composition coustic soda per 1 kg of Hg was washed with a solution of 30 s / d 50 g coustic soda in 1 quart of water. Or it could be with the addition of salt.
Although mercury has a boiling point of 357 ° C, but has the ability to evaporate at room temperature (25 ° C) due to the low-pressure evaporat
1. Save the mercury in the shade (room temperature> 25 ° C) and protected from direct sunlight.
2. Store in a special container (can use containers made of stainless steel, steel, iron, ceramic, plastic or glass container and do not use aluminum) are closed and make sure the mercury soaked with a little water, and put it in a safe place away from the child.
Extraction Of Gold in the Process Of Amalgamation will be effective on the liberation of gold that were wholly or partly on particle size greater than 200 mesh (0074 mm) and in the form of pure gold that is free. The success of the processing of gold by amalgamation system is determined by the condition of metallic minerals from the ore in the pulp and conditions though. Conditions that cause ugly gold metal grains can not be wetted by mercury and can be divided into fine particles so that the process of amalgamation does not take place perfectly. Gold grains derived from primary gold ore is not oxidized is usually clean and shiny is good to get into the mercury in the process of amalgamation. And another thing to consider in this process is the element content of the oil carried by the ore is very disturbing in the process of amalgamation and can break down the content of mercury, so that mercury will be small grains and is often carried away by the tailings. Oil contamination can also be caused by oil from machine tools. If the oil spill to occur on mineral ore, it can be done roasting minerals that will advance the process. Or can also add cement or lime.
- Destruction of rocks from the mining conducted to obtain a smaller-sized rocks. Size obtained is usually ± 20mm. machine used is a machine or Stone Crusher Hammer Mill or Crusher Jaws
- Rocks that have been destroyed then in put in drum machine with a capacity of drum machine used. In order to rarefaction and binding of the metal content of gold by mercury can then be left up to a quarter of the capacity of drum machine used. After all the rock mineral inserted it inside the drum machine was added to the water a quarter of the above rocks are included.
- After all is ready for mashed inside the drum machine can be closed up tightly so that no liquid water in the machine until it comes out. Then let the mill running until approximately 4 hours or 5 hours. Until all the soft rock material such as flour.
- After all the rocks are soft, then the mercury can be inserted into the drum machine, then run the machine back to the time between 2 hours. To 25 kg of material processed mineral rocks better use of mercury 2 kg
- After all completed then all the mud from inside the drum machine is issued and placed in a large tub and on the inside of the drum machine can be sprayed with water, so that the remains of mud and Mercury are still attached to really clean the drum machine
- Then the mud bath that contains you fill with water until it is completely full and overflowing from the tub of mud mixed with water will flow into the storage pool, whereas the binding of mercury amalgam will settle to the bottom surface of the tub. The addition of water is continuously performed very well, because when mud is thickened mercury can be carried away by the thickened sludge
- Amalgam that has been generated can then be filtered and squeezed using a parachute cloth until all the mercury out of the parachute fabric, it will produce the mineral content of ores that have tied up with mercury. Amalgam that has been generated and then decomposed into elements of mercury in gold bullion by heating the distillation because mercury will evaporate and be recouped to the condensation of mercury vapor that can be reused.
Hg (NO3) 2 + Cu -> Cu (NO3) 2 + Hg
Noteworthy in this method is contained in the silver content of mercury can reduce the infiltration. Periodically need to be done purification by distillation.
- The results of the distillation process that has been split between the metal containing gold with mercury it can be readily Processed Fusion.From the distillation of amalgam can then be directly smelted and made into a metal, and of course there are mineral deposits of silver and copper metal.
Furthermore, the solution in the form of mud that has been deposited in the pool, when it has dried transported to re-processed using the Cyanide (NaCN), Because of the efficiency of processing the results of amalgamation technique can only reach 60%.
THESE ARE SOME OF THE FLOTATION REAGENT WHICH CAN BE USED IN THE FLOTATION PROCESS
|Xanth (ogen ) ates||Sulfide Flotation|
|Carboxylates ( Fatty acids )||Carbonate / Oxide / Sulfide Flotation|
|Alkyl ammonium salts||Silicate / Oxide Flotation|
|Aliphatic alcohol ( Methyl isobutyl carbinol )||Frother|
|Cyclic alcohol ( Pine oil, Eucalyptus oil )||Frother, Collector|
|Aromatic alcohol (Cresols, Xylenol )||Frother|
|REGULATOR ( Modifiers )||FUNCTION|
|Lime (Dalkeith)||Sulfide pH – Depressor phyrite|
|Sodium hydroxide||pH-Disperses gangue|
|Copper Sulfide||Sphalerite Activation|
|Sodium Sulfide||Activation /Oxidation|
Collectors are organic substances that impart hydrophobicity to mineral particles to be floated, which makes possible the attachment of the particles to gas bubbles. Collector is a material that can cause mineral particles into the air like it, namely by coating the surface of mineral particles with a polar reagent. So on the outside of the minerals that make up the chemical reaction occurs non-polar layers are easy to draw the air, and minerals, it easily attaches to air bubbles. The molecules of a collector are generally composed of two parts: (1) a hydrocarbon (nonpolar) and carboxyl group and (2) an amino-acid group and another (polar) chemically active group affixed to the mineral surface. Collectors are classified as nonionogenic and ionogenic according to their ability to dissociate into ions in an aqueous medium. Nonionogenic collectors are virtually insoluble in water and usually include nonpolar, hydrocarbon liquids, such as kerosine and petroleum oils. Ionogenic collectors dissociate in water into an anion and cation and, depending on the type of hydrophobic ion, are divided into anion collectors
Sample collectors for sulfide minerals are Xanthate, and Dithiophosphate. As for non-sulfide minerals Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated.
Frother chemical to use to help stabilize air bubbles that form on the flotation process, so it is not easily broken. Air bubbles that are formed should be able to move freely in the pulp and can take precious mineral particles, and then float into the pulp.Frothing agents increase the stability of the mineralized froth and facilitate the dispersion of air in the pulp and the formation of the minutest possible bubbles. Such agents are usually organic surfactants, the molecules of which have a polar and nonpolar group and are adsorbed along the surface of the gas-liquid interface, thereby reducing surface tension
Examples of Flotation frother frother is DOWFROTH Series, MIBC, and Polyalkoxyparaffins.
- Modifier (modifying agent)
Modifier is used to return to the original surface properties. The goal is to improve the selectivity in the flotation process. Modifying agent can be grouped into 3 kelompo, namely:
1. Regulating and Dispersing Agent
Regulor serves to control the pH, eliminating the influence of slime disruption, colloid, and sea salt. An example is CaO, Na2CO3
An example is Na2SiO3
Prevent flotation of certain minerals without blocking other mineral flotation. Used when the float ability unwanted minerals float together with the minerals that will float by certain collectors. An example is the CN-(pyrit, sphalerite), and Zn + + (sphalerite)